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77 Cards in this Set

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What are the 6 advantages of having presentation aids?
Increase Understanding
Make your speech more memorable
establish authemticity of your words
enhance credibillity
improve your delivery skills
add variety and interest to speech
What are 6 disadvantages of presentation aids?
Distract listeners
distract speakers
reduce eye contact
damage your credibility
takes time to prepare
depends on equipment availability
What are the 5 most frequently used presentation aids?
people
objects
models
graphics
pictures
What are some characteristics of an effective object for a visual presentation aid?
It should be portable and easy for listeners to see.
What should presenters keep in mind when using models for their presentation?
Should be constructed to scale, but large enough for audience to see.
Give some examples of graphics.
sketches
maps
graphs
charts
textual materials
Identify three types of graphs that make material easy for the audience to understand.
Pie graph
bar graph
Line graph
What is the purpose of charts.
A chart provides summaries of relationships that are not already visible.
This type of chart show the steps in a process.
Flow chart
This is a visual that contains words, phrases, or numbers.
Textual graphics
What are some frequently used textual graphics?
Bulleted lists and acronyms.
What are the 7 types of presentation media?
flip charts
posters
handouts
chalk or marker boards
transparencies and slides
Videos, MP3, etc
Computer assisted presentations
Define flip chart
A large unlined tablet that is placed on an easel so that each page can be flipped over the top when it's full.
When can handouts be useful?
Complex subject or a lot of statistical information.
What are computer-assisted presentations and when should they be used?
They are presentations that use commercial presentation software to join audio, visual, textual, graphic, and animated components.
What are some ways that people misuse powerpoints?
Read slides verbatim, make font too small, write in complete sentences, use sounds, use text graphics, poor color choices, use complex diagrams
How can one prevent PowerPoint misuse?
Make sure slides are easy to read
Don't put entire outline on PP
Don't rely on PP by substituting it for your speech
Keep slides simple
Use bullets
Simple Charts
Avoid being extra with visual and audio effects
What are the principles of design?
Balance, Emphasis, Visibility, and Simplicity (BEVS)
Define analogous color scheme
Uses colors adjacent on the color wheel. Suggests differences and close relationships among components.
Describe some effects of using color in presentation aids.
Can enhance meaning, can create moods and impressions.
Define a complementary color scheme.
Uses colors that are opposites on the color wheel. Suggest tension and opposition.
Define a monochromatic color scheme
Uses a variation of a single color. Conveys the idea of variety within unity.
List the Dos of using presentation aids.
1) Practice using your aid
2) Stand to the side of your aid
3) Display aids only when referring to them
4) Point to what is important
5) Maintain eye contact with audience
6) Distribute handouts after speech
7) Limit the number of aids in your speech.
What are 5 guidelines to avoid unethical use of presentation aids.
1) No misleading graphs or charts
2) DOn't manipulate visual images
3) Don't alter an image to reveal a deeper truth
4) If you do number then make sure you let the audience know.
4) Cite the source of your information on the aid
5) As a listener be aware.
Identify three reasons that language is one of the most important skills.
1)Most of us think in words which shapes the way we think.
2) Language is the basis of all social interactions
3) Words determine what and how we think about ourselves
What advantages does spoken word have over written word?
1) It is more spontaneous
2) It is more colorful and intense
3) It is more interactive and engaging
4) It offers constraints and opportunities.
5) Has power to influence listeners
In what ways can spoken word influence listeners?
1) It can influence how listeners see subjects
2) How they feel about a subject
3) How listeners identify with one another
4) Can influence how listeners act
What are some obstacles speakers must overcome when trying to awaken listener feelings?
1) Time
2) Distance
3) Apathy
Identify two types of meaning and define them.
Connotative- the emotional, subjective, personal meaning that certain words evoke in listeners.
Denotative- the dictionary definition
What is jargon and how can it impair clarity?
Jargon- technical language specific to a professions. It impairs clarity because audience may not understand the language.
Define euphemism
efforts to evade and obscure the truth
Define doublespeak
using words that point in the direction opposite from the reality they should be describing. (marital discord, downsizing, collateral damage, making a salary adjustment)
Define amplification and how it can help improve clarity.
The art of developing ideas by finding ways to restate them in a speech.
What are the 6 C's of Effective Language Use.
Clarity
Concreteness
Color
Correctness
Conciseness
Cultural sensitivity
Define malapropisms and what part of effective language use does it affect?
Language errors that occur when a word is confused with another word that sounds like it. It affects correctness.
How can you achieve conciseness?
Using maxisms which are brief and apt sayings.
This is a type of style that deals with identifying and understanding the special techniques used to magnify the power of language.
rhetorical style
What are three categories of techniques that are useful for public speaking?
figurative language, order of words, and sound of words
Define figurative language and give some examples.
Uses words in surprising and unusual ways that magnifies the power of language. Examples: metaphor, similes, personification, culture-types, and ideographs
Define enduring metaphor
metaphors of unusual popularity and power that are based on experience that lasts across time and crosses many cultural boundaries.
Give 3 examples of enduring metaphors.
light and darkness, storm and sea, the family
Define a simile.
Compares something abstract to something concrete
Define culturetypes
terms that express the values and goals of a group's culture.
This is a compact expression of a group's basic political faith. Uses words such a freedom, demorcracy, and liberty.
Ideographs
What are three methods used to change the order of words?
antithesis, inversion, and parallel construction.
Define antithesis
arranges different opposing ideas in the same or adjoining sentences to create a contrast.
Define inversion
Reverses the expected order of words in a phrase to make a statement more memorable.
Define parallel construction
Repetition of words/phrases at the beginning or end of sentences.
What are two ways that you can change or emphasize the sound of words?
Alliteration and onomatopoeia
Define alliteration
Repetition of initial sounds in closely connected words.
Define onomatopoeia
Words that imitate natural sounds
Define integrated communication
Using body, voice, and language to create an effective presentation.
What are some characteristics of presenting an effective presentation.
Should be natural, conversational, and a good attitude.
What is the most effective type of conversational style? Define it.
Expanded conversational style- a direct and spontaneous style of communication
Define immediacy and how can it be encouraged?
a closeness between listeners and speakers. Speakers can encourage this by limiting the actual distance between speaker and listener.
Define pitch and describe the differences between habitual and optimum pitch.
Pitch is the placement of your voice on the musical scale. Habitual pitch is the level you normally speak at while optimum pitch is the level you can produce the strongest voice with minimal effort.
How do rate and rhythm relate?
Rate is the speed you speak while rhythm is those rate patterns within a speech.
Define vocal distractions.
Using replacements sounds between pauses (err, umm)
What are five categories in which you can develop your voice?
Tone, rate. loudness, variety, and patterns of speaking
What are four different subcategories of speaking patterns?
articulation, enunciation, pronunciation, and dialect.
Define articulation
how speech sounds are pronounced
This is how individual words are articulated and pronounced in context.
Enunciation
What must body language do?
Reinforce verbal language
Describe three ways you can develop good body language.
Facial expressions/eye contact, movement and gestures, and personal appearance
What are the three phases of effective gestures
readiness, execution, and return
Define proxemics.
The study of ho human beings use space during communication.
What are the two principles of proxemics?
distance and elevation
What are 4 methods of presentation that focus on versatility?
impromptu, memorized, extemporaneous, and manuscript
What are some advantages and disadvantages of impromptu speeches?
A: spontaneous, open to feedback, meets demand of situation
D: Less polished, not as researched, less organized, less use of supporting material.
What are advantages and disadvantages of memorized speech?
thoroughly planned and polished; eloquent wording.
D: Not as conversational, cam make you forget to communicate
What are the advantages and disadvantages of extemporaneous speech?
A: Spontaneous, encourage responding to audience feedback, encourages focusing on the essence of your message.
D: Requires a lot of prep and practice
What are the advantages and disadvantages of manuscript speech?
Allows planning for precise wording, can be timed
D: Inhibits response to feedback and requires ability to read well
What formula can you use when developing an impromptu speech?
Point, Reason, Example, Point (PREP)
What type of speaking is also known as the master mode of speaking?
Extemporaneous
What are 3 categories of nonverbial audience feedback?
Signals of misunderstanding, loss of interest, and signals of disagreement
Describe some methods for effectively handling questions.
1) Prepare fo questions
2) Repeat questions
3) Maintain eye contact with audience as you answer
4) Defuse hostile questions
5) Don't be afraid to say I don't know
6) Keep answers short and direct
7) Handle non-questions politely.
8) Bring answer and question section to a close
Describe Judith Humprehy's "taking the stage"
Attitude
conviction
Character of Leadership
Script
Language
Believe in your views