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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
preparation outline
a detailed outline developed during the process of speech preparation that includes the title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and bibliography of a speech
speaking outline
a brief outline used to jog a speaker's memory during the presentation of a speech
-visual framework from preparation outline
- keep outline brief
- give yourself delivery cues
denotative meaning
the literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase
connotative meaning
the meaning suggested by the associations of emotions triggered by a word or phrase
concrete words
words that refer to tangible objects
abstract words
words that refer to ideas or concepts
discourse that takes many more words than are necessary to express an idea
the use of vivid language to create mental images of objects, actions, or ideas
inclusive language
language that does not sterotype, demean, or patronize people on the basis of gender, race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or other factors
non-verbal communication
communication based on a person's use of voice and body, rather than on the use of words
-personal appearance
- movement
- gestures - motions of a speaker's hands or arms during a speech
- eye-contact - direct visual contact with the eyes of another person
good delivery
conveys speaker's ideas clearly, interestingly, and w/o distracting the audience
- good conversation
methods of delivery
- manusript speech - written out word for word and read to the audience
- reciting from memory
- impromptu speaking - delivered w/ little or no immediate preparation
- extemporaneous speech- carefully prepared and rehearsed speecch that is presented from a brief set of notes
speaker's voice
volume - loudness/softness
pitch - highness/loudness
inflections - changes in pitch/tone
monotone - constant pitch/tone
rate - speed a person speaks
pause - momentary break in vocal delivery
vocalized pause - silence between words w/ vocalization like uh er um
vocal variety
changes in a speaker's rate, pitch, and volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness
the accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words in a give language
the physcial production of particular speech sounds
a variety of a language distingused by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary
kinds of visual aids
- models - an object usually built to scale that represents another object in detail
- photographs
- drawings
- graphs- used to show statistical trends and patterns (line, pie, graph)
- charts - summarizes a large block of information, usually in list form
- video
- transparencies
- multimedia presentations
- speaker
guidelines for preparing visual aids
- prepare visual aids in advance
- keep visual aids simple
- make sure they're large enough
- use easy-to-read fonts
- use limited # of fonts
- use color effectively
presenting visual aids
- avoid using chalkboard
- display where listeners can see them
- avoid passing aids among audience
- display only when discussing
- talk to audience, not visuals
- explain aids cleary and concisely
- practice w/ visual aids
the process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people's beliefs or actions
the name used for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility
the audiences's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic. 2 major functions are competence and character
how an audience regards a speaker's intelligence, expertise, and knowledge of the subject
how an audience regards a speaker's sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well-being of the audience
named used for the logical appeal of a speaker. 2 major elements are evidence and reasoning
supporting materials used to prove/disprove something
process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence
the name for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal
- fear
- compassion
- pride
- anger
- guilt
- reverence
the study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication
speech of introduction
introduces the main speaker to the audience
- be brief
- make sure remarks are completely accurate
- adapt your remarks to occasion, main speaker, audience
- try to create a sense of anticipation and drama
speech of presentation
speech presents someone a gift, award, or some other form of public recognition
acceptance speech
speech that gives thanks for a gift, award, or some other form of public recognition
commemorative speech
speech that pays tribute to a person, group of people, institution, or idea
after-dinner speech
speechc to entertain that makes a thoughtful point about it's subject in a light-hearted manner
speech to stimulate
audience is with you on your point of view of subject, you just make them believe even more
speech to convince
audience is against you, and you are trying to get them to see the way things you do and convice them your way is better. * do not say "I want you to agree with me..."