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241 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Dynadic Communication
Communication between 2 people, as in conversation
Small Group Communication
A small number of peope who can see and speak a large audience of unknown people
Public Speaking
A speaker delivers a message with a specific purpose to an audience of people who are present during the delivery of the speech
Feedback
Listener response to a message
Goal of Communication
Shared meaning
Speech Context
All of the factors affecting the speech:
-Audience
-course assignment
-physical setting
-occasion
-situation
Ethnocentrism
Assuming superior stance saying that your ethnicity or religion is better then others
Rhetoric
The practice of oratory
Invention
Adapting speech information to the audience in order to make your case
Arrangement
Organizing the speech in ways that are best suited to the topic and the audience.
Style
the way the speaker uses language to express the speech ideas
Memory
The practice of the speech until it can be artfully delivered
Delivery
Vocal and nonverbal behavior you use when speaking
Pre-Preperation Anxiety
Feeling anxious the minute they know they will be giving a speech
Preperation Anxiety
anxiety that arises while preparing for the speech
Pre-Performance Anxiety
anxiety while rehersing your speech
Performance Anxiety
anxiety just before the speaking begins. This is the most pronunced during the introduction of the speech
Visualization
exercise that requires the speaker to close his or her eyes and visualize a series of positive feelings and reactions that will occur on the day of the speech
Ethics
the study of moral conduct
Ethos
"character"
Free Speech
the right to be free from unreasonable constrants on expression
Fighting Words
speech that provokes people to violence
Defamatory statement
one that politically harms an individual's reputation at work or in the community(slander)
Values
our most endearing judgements or standards of what's good and bad in life
Instrumental Values
characteristics you value in yourself and others
Terminal Values
states of being you consider important and they are desirable ends in themselves(happiness, world peace, etc.)
Trustworthiness
combination of honesty and dependability
Plagiarism
the passing off of another person's information as ones own
Paraphrase
restatement of someone else's ideas, opinions, or theories in the speaker's own words.
Circular Response
continual flow, or feedback, between speaker and listener
Hearing
the physiological process of hearing sound
Listening
the conscious act of recognizing, understanding, and accurately interpresting the messages communicated by others
Selective Perception
People pay attention selectively to certain messages and ignore others
Active listening
focused, purposeful listening
Listening distraction
anything that competes for attention that you are trying to give to something else
External listening distraction
anything in the environment:
-noise
-movement
-light
-darkness
-heat
-cold
-etc.
Internal listening distraction
thoughts and feelings, both positive and negative, that intrude on our attention.
Defensive listening
occurs when we sense that our attitudes or opinions are being challanged
Critical thinking
the ability to evaluate claims based on the basis of well-supported reasons
Overgeneralizations
unsupported conclusions
Either-Or thinking
thinking that is dominated by just Two(2) choicesl creates false dilemmas that do not in fact exist
Demographic characteristics
ratio of male to females; racial and ethnic differences represented in the group; noticeable age variations; out of state or out of the country
Specific Purpose
explicit statement, stated as a declarative sentence, of what you expect the speech to accumplish for the audience
Thesis Statement
clearly expresses the central idea of your speech in a single idea
Main Points
Primary pieces of knowledge(in an informative speech) or the key arguements in favor of your position(in a persuasive speech) that you want your audience to understand
Introduction
introduce the topic and the speaker and alert the audience members of your specific speech purpose
Speech Body
contains the speech's main points and subpoints, which support the speech's thesis
Conclusion
restates the speech purpose and reiteriates how the main points confirm it
Coordinate points
points that are of equal importance and are indicated by their parallel alignment in an outline
Subordinate points
points that are given less weight than the main points they support and are identified in outlines by their placement to the right of the points they support
Working Outline
contains points stated in complete sentances
Speaking Outlines
far briefer then working outlines and are usually prepared using short phrases or key words.
Vocal Delivery
includes:
-speech volume
-rate
-pitch
-veriety
-pronunciation
-articulation
Effective Delivery
skillful application of natural conversational behavior in a way that is relaxed, enthusiatic, and direct
Speaking from a manuscript
reading a speech verbatim
Speaking from Memory
oratory
Speaking improptu
speaking on a relatively short notice with little time to prepare
Speaking extemporaneously
speaking by preparing well and practicing in advance, giving full attention to all the facets of the speech
Volume
the relative loudness of a speaker's voice
Pitch
range of sounds from high to low
Intonation
what distinguishes a question from a statement
Speaking rate
most effective way to hold an audience's attention, as well as to convey the meaning of our speech
Vocal Fillers
an unnecessary and undesirable way of covering pauses such as "uh", "hmm", "you know", etc.
Pauses
enhance meaning by providing a type of punctuation, emphasizing a point, drawing attention to a key though, or just allowing listeners a moment to contemplate what is being said
Vocal variety
using all of the vocal elements, volume, pitch, rate, and pauses, to create an effective delivery
Pronunciation
the correct formation of word sounds
Articulation
the clarity or forcefulness of with which the sounds are made
Dialects
cultural variations on the preferred pronunciation and articulation of its languages
Mumbling
slurring words together at a very low level of volume and pitch so that they are barely audible
Aural channel
channel of communication that is made up of the vocalizations that form and accompany spoken words
Paralanguage
how something is said, not what is said
Visual Channel
channel of communication that includes the speaker's physical actions and appearance- facial expressions, gestures, general body movement, physical appearence, dress, and objects held
Scanning
moving your gaze from one listener to another and from one section to another, pausing as you do so to gaze briefly at each individual
"Talking Head"
a person who remains steadily positioned in one(1) place behind a microphone or podium
Anecdote
brief story of interesting, humorous, or real-life incidents
Rhetoricial questions
questions that do not invite actual responses. Instead they make their audience think
Ethical appeal
clearly establishes your professionalism
Sign post
words that alert the audience that your speech is concluding (finally, in conclusion, in summary, etc)
Style
specific word choices
Rhetoric devises
techniques of language
Cultural sensitivity
conscious attempt to be considerate of cultural beliefs, norms, or traditions that are different from your own
Biased Language
any language that relies on unfound assumptions, negative descriptions, or stereotypes of a given group's age, class, gender, disability, and geographic, ethnic, racial, or religious characteristics
Jargon
specialized language of a given profession
Concrete language
specific, tangible, and definate language
Abstract language
language that is general or nonspecific
Simile
compares one(1) thing to another, using "like" or "as" to do so
Metaphor
compares two(2) things, but does so by describing one(1) thing as actually being the other
Analogy
an extended metaphor or simile that compares an unfamiliar concept or process to a more familiar one to help the listener understand the unfamiliar one
Malapropism
the inadvertant use of a word or phrase in place of one that sounds like it
Denotative meaning
meaning of word that is its literal, or dictionary, defination
Connotative meaning
meaning of a word that is the special association that different people bring to bear on it
Voice
the feature of verbs that indicates the subject's relations to the action
Hedges
unnecessary words and phrases that qualify or introduce doubt into statements that should be straightforward
Alliteration
the repetition of the same sounds, usually initial constants, in two(2) or more neighboring words or syllables
Main Points
express the key ideas and major themes of the speech
Supporting Points
represent the supporting material or evidence you have gathered to justify the main points and lead the audience to accept the purpose of the speech
Coherence
clarity and logical consistency in a speech
Coordination and subordination
the logical placement of ideas relative to their importance to one(1) another
Transitions
words, phrases, or sentence that tie the speech ideas together and enable the speaker to move smoothly from one(1) point to the next
Internal preview
tells the audinece what to expect next
Internal summary
draws together important ideas before proceeding to another speech point
Topical pattern of arrangement
when each of the main points of a topic is of equal importance, and when these points can be presented in any order relative to the other main points without changing the message
Chronological pattern of arrangement
the arrangement of main points according to their occurence in time relative to each other
Spatical pattern of arrangement
used when the purpose of your speech is to describe or explain the physical arrangement of a place, a scene, or an object, logic suggests that the main points be arranged in order of their physical proximity or direction relative to each other
Cause-effect pattern of arrangement
used in cause-effect speeches
Problem-solution pattern of arrangement
the main points are organized to demonstrate the nature and significance of a problem and then to provide justification for a proposed solution
Narrative pattern of arrangement
used in a speech that consists of a story or a series of short stories
Circle pattern of arrangement
speaker develops one(1) idea, which leads to another, which leads to a third(3rd), and so forth until he or she arrives back at the speech thesis
Rhetorical situation
the overall speech situation
Informative speech
increases the audience's understanding and awareness of a topic
Persuasive speech
increases the audience's understanding and awareness of a topic
Special occasion speeches
includes speeches of introduction, speeches of acceptance, speeches of presentation, roasts and toasts, eulogies, and after-dinner speeches, among others
Brainstorming
a problem-solving technique that involves the spontaneous generation of ideas
Examples
illistrate, describe, or represent things
Testimony
first(1st)hand findings, eyewitness accounts, and opinions by people, both lay and expert
Expert testimony
any findings, eyewitness accounts, or opinions by professionals who are trained to evaulate or report on a given topic
Lay testimony
testimony by nonexperts
Facts
represent documented occurences, including actual events, dates, times, people involved, and places
Statistics
summarized data that measure the size or magnitude of something, demonstrate trends, or show relationships
Descriptive statistics
statistics that describe things
Inferential statistics
statistics that help predict things
Primary research
original or first(1st) hand research, such as interviews and surveys conducted by you, the speaker
Secondary research
the vast world of information gathered by others
Vague questions
questions that don't give the person being interviewed enough to go on
Leading questions
questions that encourage, if not force, a certain response and reflect the interviewer's bias
Loaded questions
questions that are phrased the reinforce the interviewer's agenda
Reference librarians
information specialists who are trained to help you in your search
Encylopedias
summarize knowledge that is found in original form elsewhere
Atlas
collection of maps, text, and accompying charts and tables
Fabrication
making up of information
Prop
live or inanimate object
Model
three(3)-dimensional, scale-size representation of an object
Pictures
two(2)-dimensional representations of people, places, ideas, or objects produced on an opaque backing
Diagram
explains how something is constructed or operated
Map
representation of a whole or a part of an area on a a flat surface
Poster
large, bold, two(2)-dimensional design incorperating words, shapes, and, if desired, color, placed on an opaque backing
Graph
represents numerical data in a visual form
Line Graph
graph that displays measurement, usually plotted on the horizontal axis, and units of measurement or values, which are plotted on the vertical axis
Bar Graph
graph that uses bars of varying lengths to compare quantities or magnitudes
Chart
visually organizes complex information into compact form
Flowchart
diagram that shows step-by-step progression through a procedure, a relationship, or a process
Organizational chart
illustrates the organizational structure or chain of command in an organization
Table
systematic grouping of data or numerical information in column form
Audio clip
short recording of sounds, music, or speech
Vide
includes movie, television, and other recording segements
Multimedia
combines several media(stills, sound, video, text, and data) into a single production
Overhead transparency
an image on a transparent background that can be viewed by transmitted light, either directly or through a projection onto a screen or a wall
LCD projector
comes with an illumination or light source, which eliminates the need for an overhead projector
Flip chart
a large pad of paper on which a speaker can illistrate speech points
Chalkboard
write on with chalk; lowest tech visual aid
Handout
page-size items that convey information that is either impractical to give the audience in another manner or intended to be kept by audience members after the presentation
Eight by eight rule
in a PowerPoint, don't use more than eight words in a line and eight lines on a side
Typeface
specific style of lettering(Arial, Times New Roman, or Courier)
Fonts
sets of sizes and upper and lower case of typeface
Serif typefaces
typefaces that include small flourishes, or strokes, at the tops and bottoms of each letter
Sans serif typefaces
typefaces that are more block like and linear
Operational definition
defines somethnig by describing what it does
Definition by negation
defines something by explaining what it is not
Definition by example
defines something by providing examples of the subject under discussion
Definition by synonym
defines something by comparing it with another term that has equivalent meaning
Definition by etymology
defining something by account of the word's history
Small group
group consisting of three(3) to twenty(20) people
Presentational speaking
reports delivered by individuals or groups within the business or professional environment
Agenda
identifies the items to be accomplished during a group meeting
Interpersonal roles
styles of interacting in the group
Counterproductive roles
negitive interpersonal roles
Personal-based conflict
members argue about one(1) another instead of about the issues
Issues-based conflict
allows members to test and debate ideas and potential solutions.
Groupthink
the tendency to accept information and ideas without subjecting them to critical analysis
Persuasive speaking
speech that is intended to influence the attitudes, beliefs, values and acts of others
Logos
term that refers to persuasive appeals directed at the audience's reasoning on a topic
Syllogism
three(3)-part arguement consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
Major premise
general case
Minor premise
specific case
Enthymeme
syllogism presented as a probability rather than an absolute, and it states either a major or a minor premise but not both
Pathos
appealing to a listener's emotions
Ethos
appealing to a listener's moral character
Expectancy-Outcome Values Theory
states that each of us consciously evaluates the potential costs and benifits associated with a particular action
Central processing
when we are motivated and able to think critically about the content of a message
Preipheral processing
when we lack the motivation to pay close attention to the issues
Speaker credibility
a speaker's expertise, trustworthiness, speaker similarity , and pyhsical attractiveness
Audience analysis
process of gathering and analyzing information about your listeners with the explicit aim of adopting your message to the information you uncover
Attitudes
reflect a predisposition to respond to people, ideas, objects, or events in an evaluative way(positive attitude towards reading = like to read
Beliefs
the ways in which people perceive reality; our feelings about what is true(I believe God exists)
Values
people's most enduring judgements about what's good and bad in life(hardest to change)
Perspective taking
seeing things from your listeners' point of view
Target audience
those individuals within the broader audience whom you are most likely to infouence in the direction you seek
Demographics
statistical characteristics of a given population
Co-culture
social communtiy whose perceptions and beliefs differ significantly from yours
Close-ended questions
designed to elicit a small range of specific answers supplied by the interviewer
Fixed-alternative questions
questions that contain a limitd choice of answers, such as "yes", "no", and "sometimes"
Scale questions
questions that measure the responent's level of agreeement or disagreement with specific issues
Open-ended questions
designed to allow respondents to elaborate as much as they wish
Similarities Between Public Speaking and Other Forms of Communication
-Sensitivity to listeners
-Easy to follow
-Believable
-Relevant
-Interesting
-Speaker must be knowledgeable, unbiased, and clear
Differences Between Public Speaking and Other Forms of Communication
-Opportunity for feedback
-Preparation
-Degree of Formality
Canons of Rhetoric
-Invention
-Arrangement
-Style
-Memory
-Delivery
Things that Cause Anxiety
-Lack of public speaking experience
-Feeling different from members of the audience
-Uneasiness about being the center of attention
Types of Anxiety
-Pre-Preperation
-Preperation
-Pre-Performance
-Performance
Ways to Make Your Anxiety Subside
-Manage your time wisely
-Focus on research to be familiar with subject
-Learn as much about your audience and speech environment as possible
Qualities a Speaker Must Have(Creates speaker's ethos)
-Competence
-Character
-Goodwill
Types of Speech that are not Protected
-Fighting words
-Defamatory speech
-Reckless disregard for the truth
Types of Values
-Instrumental
-Terminal
Things You want to Avoid When Speaking
-Jargon
-Ethnocentrism
-Stereotypes
-Hate Speech
Responsible Speakers
-Evaluate usefulness of topic
-Use sound evidence and reasoning
-Strive for accuracy
-Present speech ethnically
Selective Perception
-We pay attention to what we hold to be important
-We pay attention to information that touches our experiences and backgrounds
-We sort and filter new information on the basis of what we already know
Barriers to Active Listening
-Listening distractions
-Scriptwriting and defensive listening
-Laziness and overconfidence
-Cultural barriers
Becoming a More Active Listener
-Set listening goals
-Listen for main ideas
-Watch for the speaker's nonverbal cues
Critical Thinkers
-Evaulate the evidence
-Analyze assumptions and biases
-Assess an arguement's logic
-Resist false assumptions, overgeneralizations, either-or thinking, and other fallacies in reasoning
-Consider multiple perspectives
-Summarize and judge
Steps in the Speechmaking Process
-Select a topic
-Analyze the audience
-State the speech purposr
-Compose a thesis statement
-Develop the main points
-Gather supporting materials
-Seperate the speech in its major parts
-Outline the speech
-Consider presentation aids
-Practice delivering the speech
General Purpose of a Speech
-To inform
-To persuade
-To mark a special occasion
Major Parts of a Speech
-Introduction
-Body
-Conclusion
Methods of Delivery
-Speaking from a manuscript
-Speaking from memory
-Impromptu speaking
-Extemporaneous speaing
Factors that Determine Speaker's Volume
-Size of the room and the number of people in the audience
-Whether of not you use a microphone
-The level of background noise
Functions of Nonverbal Communication in Delivery
-Clarifying verbal messages
-Facilitating feedback
-Establishing relationships between speaker and audience
-Establishing speaker credibility
Functions of the Introduction
-Arouse the audience's attention and willingness to listen
-Preview the topic and purpose of the speech
-Establish a bond with the audience
-Establish the speaker's credibility to address the topic
-Motivate the audience to accept the speaker's goals
Functions of Conclusions
-Signal to the audience that the speech is coming to an end and provide closure
-Summarize the key points
-Reiterate the thesis or central idea of the speech
-Challange the audience to respond
Functions of Supporting Material
-Illustrates or clarifies a point in a speech
-Elaborates on an idea
-Substantiates or proves that a statement is correct
Information Included in Citing a Source in Bibliography
-Name of author(s) or editor(s)
-Title of publication
-Volume or edition number, if applicable
-Name of Publisher
-Place of publication
-Date and year of publication
-Page numbers on which material appears
Criteria to use when Evaluating Secondary Resources
-What is the author's background?
-How credible is the publication?
-How reliable is the data, especially the statistical information?
-How recent is the reference?
Functions of Presentation Aids
-Help listeners process and retain information
-Promote interest in and motivation
-Convey information concisely
-Lend a professional image
Aids to Comprehension
-An appropriate organizational pattern
-Skillful use of language
-Effective preview statements and transitions, in addition to well-organized introductions and conclusions
-Presentation aids
Types of Informative Speeches(Speeches about)
-Objects
-People
-Events
-Processes
-Concepts
-Issues
Steps for Making Decisions in Groups
-Identify the problem
-Conduct research and anal ysis
-Establish guidelines and criteria
-Generate solutions
-Select the best solution
-Evaluate solutions
Making Presentations in Groups
-Designate a team leader
-Assign roles and tasks
-Ensure consistency of delivery
-Establish a consistent format
Establish transitions between speakers
-Rehearse the presentation
What do Persuasive Speeches Do?
-Attempt to influence audience choices
-Limit alternatives
-Seek a response
Aristotle's Forms of Rhetorical Proof
-Logos
-Ethos
-Pathos
Elements of Ethos
-Good sense
-Moral character
-Goodwill
Types of Demographics
-Age
-Ethnic or cultural background
-Socioeconomic status
-Religion
-Political affiliation
-Gender
Attributes of Socioeconomic Status
-Income
-Occupation
-Education
Females and giving speeches
Females may experience higher anxiety then males at all stages of the speechmaking process
How many time should you reherse your speech?
At least 6 times
What should Critical thinkers be looking for?
Flaws in arguments that resist claims that have noe supporting evidence
What is one(1) key to acheving vocal variety?
Enthusiasm
How much in percentage should the introduction and conclusion of your speech be comprised of?
No more then 10 or 15 percent(10-15%) of your entire speech
What to do when citing testimony?
Make sure you supply the name and qualifications of the person whose testimony you use, and that you tell your listeners when and where the testimony was offered
If you use a video in your speech......
.....make sure it is less than 30 seconds long
When using presentation aids.........
.......try to present one major idea per aid
The principle of continuity dictates that........
..........you apply the same design decisions you make for one(1) aid to all of the aids you display in a speech
Use Sans Serif Typeface in.......
.......headings
As a public speaker.........
.........you are accountable to your audience
Use bold, bright colors in Power Points to...........
.........emphasize important points