Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/181

Click to flip

181 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Dyadic communication –
Conversation between two people, as in a conversation.
Small group communication –
Communication involving a small number of people who can see and speak directly with one another, as in a business meeting.
Mass communication –
Communication that occurs between a speaker and a large audience of unknown people. In mass communication the receivers of the message are not present with the speaker, or they are part of such an immense crowd that there can be little or no interaction between speaker and listeners. Communication that occurs via a television or radio news broadcast or a mass rally is an example of mass communication.
Public speaking –
Public speaking – A type of communication in which the speaker delivers a message with a specific purpose to an audience of people who are physically present during the delivery of the speech. Public speaking always includes a speaker who has a reason for speaking, an audience that gives the speaker its attention, and a message that is meant to accomplish a purpose.
Source –
Source – The source, or sender, is the person who creates a message. The speaker transforms ideas and thoughts into messages and sends them to a receiver, or an audience.
Encoding –
Encoding – The process of organizing a message, choosing words and sentence structure, and verbalizing the message.
Receiver –
The recipient (an individual or a group) of a source’s message.
Feedback –
Feedback – Audience response to a message, which can be conveyed both verbally and nonverbally through gestures. Feedback from the audience often indicates whether a speaker’s message has been understood.
Decoding –
The process of interpreting a message.
Audience perspective –
Audience perspective – A stance taken by the speaker in which he or she adapts the speech to the needs, attitudes, and values of an audience.
Message –
The content of the communication process – thoughts and ideas put into meaningful expressions. A message can be expressed both verbally and nonverbally.
Channel –
The medium through which the speaker sends a message.
Noise –
Anything that interferes with the communication process between a speaker and an audience, so that the message cannot be understood; noise can come from internal or external sources.
Shared Meaning –
The mutual understanding of a message between speaker and audience. Shared meaning occurs in varying degrees. The lowest level of shared meaning exists when the speaker has merely caught the audience's attention. As the message develops, depending on the encoding choices by the source, a higher degree of shared meaning is possible.
Rhetorical situation –
Consideration of the audience, occasion, and overall speech situation when planning a speech.
Rhetorical proofs –
In classical terms, a means of persuasion (ethos, pathos, logos).
Culturally sensitive speaker –
Culturally sensitive speaker – A public speaker who assumes differences among various members of an audience and addresses audience members with interest and respect.
Ethnocentrism –
The belief that the ways of one's own culture are superior to those of other cultures. Ethnocentric speakers act as though everyone shares their point of view and points of reference, whether or not this is in fact the case.
Cultural Intelligence –
The willingness to learn about other cultures and gradually reshape your thinking and behavior in response to what you've learned.
Rhetoric – The practice of oratory, or public speaking.
Canons of rhetoric –
A classical approach to speechmaking in which the speaker divides a speech into five parts: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery.
Invention –
The classical term for the process of selecting information to illustrate or prove speech points.
Arrangement –
The strategic process of deciding how to order speech points into a coherent and convincing pattern for your topic and audience; also refers to one of the five parts of the classical canons of rhetoric.
Style –
speaker's choice of words and sentence structure.
Memory –
One of five parts of the classical canons of rhetoric; refers to the practice of the speech until it can be artfully delivered.
Delivery –
The vocal and nonverbal behavior that a speaker uses in a public speech; one of the five canons of rhetoric.
Topic –
What the speech is about; a topic may be assigned to the speaker, or the speaker may have to choose one based on personal interests, experience, and knowledge.
Audience Analysis –
The process of gathering and analyzing demographic and psychological information about audience members with the explicit aim of adapting your message to the information you uncover.
General speech purpose –
A declarative statement that answers the question “Why am I speaking on this topic for this particular audience and occasion?” Usually the general speech goal is to inform, to persuade, or to mark a special occasion. See also specific speech purpose.
Specific speech purpose –
A refined statement of purpose that zeroes in more closely than the general purpose on the goal of the speech. See also general speech purpose.
Thesis statement –
The theme, or central idea, of a speech that serves to connect all the parts of the speech. The main points, the supporting material, and the conclusion all relate to the thesis.
Main points –
The key ideas or primary points intended to fulfill the speech purpose. Their function is to make claims in support of the thesis. See also subordinate points.
Supporting material –
Information (examples, narratives, testimony, and facts and statistics) that clarifies, elaborates, and verifies the speaker's assertions.
Introduction –
The first part of a speech in which the speaker establishes the speech purpose and its relevance to the audience and previews the topic and the main points.
Body –
The part of the speech in which the speaker develops the main points intended to fulfill the speech purpose.
Conclusion –
The part of the speech in which the speaker reiterates the speech purpose, summarizes main points, and leaves the audience with something to think about or act upon.
Coordinate points –
The alignment of points in a speech outline according to their equal importance to the topic and purpose.
Subordinate points –
The alignment of points within a speech outline that have somewhat lesser weight than main points; they provide support for or extend the more central ideas of main points.
Vocal delivery –
The speaker's use of speech volume, rate, pitch, variety, pronunciation, and articulation to deliver a speech.
Nonverbal delivery -
The speaker's use of facial expressions, gestures, general body movements, and overall physical appearance when presenting the speech.
Feedback loop –
The continual flow or feedback between speaker and listener. A situation in which successful speakers adjust their message based on their listeners' reactions, and vice versa (also known as circular response).
Listening –
The conscious act of recognizing, understanding, and accurately interpreting the messages communicated by others.
Selective Perception –
A psychological principle that posits that listeners pay attention selectively to certain messages and ignore others.
Active listening –
A multistep, focused, and purposeful process of gathering and evaluating information.
Listening distraction –
Anything that competes for a listener's attention; the source of the distraction may be internal or external.
External listening distraction –
Anything in the environment that distracts listeners from receiving the speaker's message.
Internal listening distraction –
Thoughts and feelings, both positive and negative, that intrude on our attention as we attempt to listen to a speaker.
Defensive listening –
A poor listening behavior in which the listener reacts defensively to a speaker's message.
Critical thinking –
The ability to evaluate claims on the basis of well-supported reasons.
Valid generalization –
A generalization that is supported by different types of evidence from different sources and that does not make claims beyond a reasonable point.
Overgeneralization –
An attempt to support a claim by asserting that a particular piece of evidence is true for everyone concerned.
Responsibility –
A charge, trust, or duty for which one is accountable.
Ethics –
The rules or standards of moral conduct, or how people should act toward one another. In terms of public speaking, ethics refers to the responsibilities speakers have toward both their audience and themselves. It also encompasses the responsibilities that listeners have toward speakers.
Ethos –
The Greek word for “character.” According to the ancient Greek rhetorician Aristotle, audiences listen to and trust speakers if they exhibit competence (as demonstrated by the speaker's grasp of the subject matter) and good moral character.
Speaker Credibility –
The quality that reveals that a speaker has a good grasp of the subject, displays sound reasoning skills, is honest and nonmanipulative, and is genuinely interested in the welfare of audience members; a modern version of ethos.
Free speech –
The right to be free from unreasonable constraints on expression.
Fighting words –
A speech that uses language that provokes people to violence.
Slander –
Defamatory speech.
Reckless disregard for the truth –
A quality of defamatory speech that is legally liable. See also defamatory statement.
Values –
Our most enduring judgments or standards of what's important to us (e.g., equal opportunity, democracy, change and progress, or perseverance).
Dignity –
The feeling that one is worthy, honored, or respected as a person.
Integrity –
The quality of being incorruptible, or able to avoid compromise for the sake of personal expediency.
Trustworthiness –
The quality of displaying both honesty and dependability.
Respect –
To feel or show deferential regard. For the ethical speaker, respect ranges from addressing audience members as unique human beings to refraining from rudeness and other forms of personal attack.
Jargon –
Specialized terminology developed within a given endeavor or field of study.
Ethnocentrism –
The belief that the ways of one's own culture are superior to those of other cultures. Ethnocentric speakers act as though everyone shares their point of view and points of reference, whether or not this is in fact the case.
Stereotype –
A generalization about an apparent characteristic of a group, culture, or ethnicity that falsely claims to define all of its members.
Hate speech –
Any offensive communication — verbal or nonverbal — directed against people's racial, ethnic, religious, gender, or other characteristics. Racist, sexist, or ageist slurs, gay bashing, and cross burnings are all forms of hate speech.
Plagiarism –
The act of using other people's ideas or words without acknowledging the source. See also patchwrite plagiarism and wholesale plagiarism.
Wholesale plagiarism –
A form of plagiarism in which you “cut and paste” material from print or online sources into your speech and represent that material as your own. See also plagiarism.
Patchwrite plagiarism –
A form of plagiarism in which you copy material from a source and then change and rearrange occasional words and sentence structures to make it appear as if the material were your own.
Direct quotation –
A statement quoted verbatim, or word for word, from a source. Direct quotations should always be acknowledged in a speech. See also paraphrase.
Paraphrase –
A restatement of someone else's statements or written work that alters the form or phrasing but not the substance of that person's ideas. See also direct quotation.
Common knowledge –
Information that is likely to be known by many people and is therefore in the public domain; the source of such information need not be cited in a speech.
Copyright –
A legal protection afforded original creators of literary or artistic works, including works classified as literary, musical, dramatic, choreographic, pictorial, graphic, sculptural, audiovisual, sound recording, or architectural.
Public domain –
Bodies of work, including publications and processes, available for public use without permission; not protected by copyright or patent.
Intellectual property –
The ownership of an individual's creative expression.
Fair Use Doctrine –
Legal guidelines permitting the limited use of copyrighted works without permission for the purposes of scholarship, criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, and research.
Public Performance –
A performance, including a speech, of copyrighted material delivered in a public forum other than a classroom. When you incorporate copyrighted material into a speech, you are legally bound to obtain performance rights to do so from the copyright owner or his or her representative.
Public speaking anxiety (PSA) –
Public speaking anxiety (PSA) – Fear or anxiety associated with a speaker's actual or anticipated communication to an audience.
Pre-preparation anxiety –
A form of public speaking anxiety (PSA) that occurs the moment speakers learn they must give a speech.
Preparation anxiety –
A form of public speaking anxiety (PSA) that arises when the speaker begins to prepare for a speech, at which point he or she might feel overwhelmed at the amount of time and planning required. See also performance anxiety.
Pre-performance anxiety –
A form of public speaking anxiety (PSA) that occurs when the speaker begins to rehearse a speech.
Performance anxiety –
A form of public speaking anxiety (PSA) that occurs the moment a speaker begins to deliver a speech. See also preparation anxiety.
Visualization -
An exercise for building confidence in which the speaker closes his or her eyes and envisions a series of positive feelings and reactions that will occur on the day of the speech.
Audience Analysis –
The process of gathering and analyzing demographic and psychological information about audience members with the explicit aim of adapting your message to the information you uncover.
Audience – centered approach –
An approach to speech preparation in which in each phase of the speech preparation process — from selection and treatment of the speech topic to making decisions about organization, language, and method of delivery — is geared toward communicating a meaningful message to the audience.
Pandering –
To identify with values that are not your own in order to win approval from an audience.
Attitudes –
A predisposition to respond to people, ideas, objects, or events in evaluative ways.
Beliefs –
The ways in which people perceive reality or determine the very existence or validity of something.
Values –
Our most enduring judgments or standards of what's important to us (e.g., equal opportunity, democracy, change and progress, or perseverance).
Perspective – taking –
The identification of audience members' attitudes, values, beliefs, needs, and wants and the integration of this information into the speech context.
Identification –
A feeling of commonality with another; when appropriate, effective speakers attempt to foster a sense of identification between themselves and audience members.
Captive Audience –
An audience in attendance not because they necessarily freely choose to listen to a speech but because they must.
Demographics –
Statistical characteristics of a given population. Characteristics typically considered in the analysis of audience members include age, gender, ethnic or cultural background, socioeconomic status (including income, occupation, and education), and religious and political affiliation.
Target Audience –
Those individuals within the broader audience who are most likely to be influenced in the direction the speaker seeks.
Generational Identity –
The collective cultural identity of a generation or a cohort.
Co-culture –
A community of people whose perceptions and beliefs differ significantly from those of other groups within the larger culture.
Individualistic Cultures –
A culture that tends to emphasize personal identity and the needs of the individual rather than those of the group, upholding such values as individual achievement and decision making.
Collectivist cultures –
A culture that tends to emphasize the needs and desires of the larger group rather than those of the individual.
Uncertainty avoidance –
The extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguity.
High-uncertainty avoidance cultures –
One of five “value dimensions,” or major cultural patterns, that are significant across all cultures to varying degrees; identified by Geert Hofstede.
Low-uncertainty avoidance cultures –
One of five “value dimensions” or major cultural patterns that are significant across all cultures to varying degrees; identified by Geert Hofstede.
Power distance –
As developed by Geert Hofstede, a measure of the extent to which a culture values social equality versus tradition and authority.
Gender –
Our social and psychological sense of ourselves as males or females.
Gender stereotypes –
Oversimplified and often severely distorted ideas about the innate nature of men or women.
Sexist language –
Language that oversimplifies or distorts ideas about the innate nature of what it means to be male or female. For example the generic use of the pronoun he or she.
Interview –
A type of face-to-face communication conducted for the purpose of gathering information. Interviews can be conducted one-on-one or in a group.
Questionnaire –
A written survey designed to gather information from a large pool of respondents. Questionnaires consist of a mix of open- and closed-ended questions designed to elicit information.
Close-ended question –
A question designed to elicit a small range of specific answers supplied by the interviewer.
Fixed alternative question –
A closed-ended question that contains a limited choice of answers, such as “Yes,” “No,” or “Sometimes.”
Scale question –
A closed-ended question (also called “attitude scales”) that measures the respondent's level of agreement or disagreement with specific issues.
Open-ended question –
A question designed to allow respondents to elaborate as much as possible. Open-ended questions are particularly useful for probing beliefs and opinions. They elicit more individual or personal information about audience members' thoughts and feelings.
Rhetorical situation -
Consideration of the audience, occasion, and overall speech situation when planning a speech.
General speech purpose -
A declarative statement that answers the question “Why am I speaking on this topic for this particular audience and occasion?” Usually the general speech goal is to inform, to persuade, or to mark a special occasion. See also specific speech purpose.
Informative speech -
Public speaking that is intended to increase an audience's understanding and awareness by imparting knowledge. Informative speeches provide an audience with new information, new insights, or new ways of thinking about a topic.
Persuasive speech -
A speech whose general purpose is to effect some degree of change in the audience's beliefs, attitudes, values, or behavior.
Special occasion speech -
A speech whose general purpose is to entertain, celebrate, commemorate, inspire, or set a social agenda.
Brainstorming -
A problem-solving technique, useful for developing speech topics, that involves the spontaneous generation of ideas. Among other techniques, you can brainstorm by making lists, using word association, and mapping a topic.
Word association -
A brainstorming technique in which you write down ideas as they occur to you, beginning with a single word, in order to generate and narrow speech topics.
Topic map -
A brainstorming technique in which you lay out the words in diagram form to show categorical relationships among them; it is useful for selecting and narrowing a speech topic.
Specific speech purpose -
A refined statement of purpose that zeroes in more closely than the general purpose on the goal of the speech. See also general speech purpose.
Thesis statement -
The theme, or central idea, of a speech that serves to connect all the parts of the speech. The main points, the supporting material, and the conclusion all relate to the thesis.
Supporting material –
Information (examples, narratives, testimony, and facts and statistics) that clarifies, elaborates, and verifies the speaker's assertions.
Example –
An illustration whose purpose is to aid understanding by making ideas, items, or events more concrete and by clarifying and amplifying meaning.
Brief example –
A single illustration of a point.
Extended example –
Multifaceted illustrations of the idea, item, or event being described, thereby getting the point across and reiterating it effectively.
Hypothetical example –
An illustration of something that could happen in the future if certain things occurred.
Narrative –
A story; it can be based on personal experiences or imaginary incidents.
Anecdote –
A brief story of an interesting, humorous, or real-life incident that links back to the speaker's theme.
Testimony –
Firsthand findings, eyewitness accounts, and opinions by people, both lay (nonexpert) and expert.
Expert testimony –
Any findings, eyewitness accounts, or opinions by professionals who are trained to evaluate or report on a given topic; a form of supporting material.
testimony –
Lay Testimony by a nonexpert; a form of supporting material.
Facts –
Documented occurrences, including actual events, dates, times, places, and people involved.
Statistics –
Quantified evidence; data that measures the size or magnitude of something, demonstrates trends, or shows relationships with the purpose of summarizing information, demonstrating proof, and making points memorable.
Frequency –
A count of the number of times something occurs or appears.
Average –
A summary of a set of data according to its typical or average characteristics; may refer to the mean, median, or mode.
Mean –
The sum of the scores divided by the number of scores; the arithmetic (or computed) average.
Median –
A type of average that represents the center-most score in a distribution, the point above and below which 50 percent of the scores fall.
Mode –
A type of average that represents the most frequently occurring score in a distribution.
Cherry-picking –
To selectively present only those facts and statistics that buttress your point of view while ignoring competing data.
Invention –
The classical term for the process of selecting information to illustrate or prove speech points.
Primary research –
Original or firsthand research, such as interviews and surveys conducted by the speaker. See also secondary research.
Secondary research –
The vast world of information gathered by others; can include published facts and statistics, texts, documents, and any other information not originally collected and generated by the researcher. See also primary research.
Database –
A searchable place, or “base,” in which information is stored and from which it can be retrieved.
Full-text database –
A database in which at least some of the records contain the full text of articles.
Reference librarian –
A librarian trained to help library users locate information resources.
Library of Congress call number –
An identifying number that allows the user to retrieve books and other works that have been classified according to the Library of Congress classification system.
Dewey decimal number –
An identifying number that allows the user to retrieve books and other works that have been classified according to the Dewey decimal system.
Periodical –
A regularly published magazine or journal.
U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) –
Responsible for publishing and distributing all information collected and produced by federal agencies, from the Census Bureau to the Department of Education and the Environmental Protection Agency. GPO publications also include all congressional reports and hearings.
General encyclopedia –
A reference work that attempts to cover all important subject areas of knowledge.
Specialized encyclopedia –
A reference work that delves deeply into one subject area, such as religion, science, art, sports, or engineering.
Almanac –
A reference work that contains facts and statistics in many categories, including those that are related to historical, social, political, and religious subjects
Fact book –
A reference work that includes key information on a given topic (e.g., facts about the geography, government, economy, and transportation of a given country).
Atlas –
A collection of maps, text, and accompanying charts and tables.
Interview –
A type of face-to-face communication conducted for the purpose of gathering information. Interviews can be conducted one-on-one or in a group.
Neutral questions –
A question that doesn't lead the interviewee to a desired response.
Active listening –
A multistep, focused, and purposeful process of gathering and evaluating information.
Fabrication –
The making up of information, such as falsifying data or experiments or claiming a source where none exists.
World Wide Web –
The most frequently used portion of the Internet, the Web is a graphics-rich environment of electronic pages or documents that contain text, graphics, sound, video, and — its most distinguishing feature — hyperlinks. See also hyperlinks.
Hyperlinks –
Connections that link individual pieces of information or entire Web sites to other pieces of information or sites.
Library gateway –
An entry point into a large collection of research and reference information that has been selected and reviewed by librarians.
Domain –
The suffix at the end of a Web address that tells you the nature of the Web site: educational (.edu), government (.gov), military (.mil), nonprofit organization (.org), business/commercial (.com), or network (.net). A tilde (˜) in the address usually indicates that it is a personal page rather than part of an institutional Web site. Understanding the domain can help you assess the credibility of a site.
Tilde (-) –
A symbol that appears in the domain of a Web address; it usually indicates a personal page rather than an institutional Web site.
Information –
Data set in a context for relevance.
Propaganda –
Information represented in such a way as to provoke a desired response.
Misinformation –
Information that is false.
Disinformation –
The deliberate falsification of information.
Search engine –
Using powerful software programs, a search engine scans millions of Web documents that contain the keywords and phrases you command it to search. A program then creates a huge index from the Web pages that have been read, compares it with your search request, and returns matching results to you, usually in order of relevance.
Individual search engine –
A search engine that compiles its own database of Web pages, such as Google or AltaVista. See also meta-search engine.
Meta-search engine –
A search engine that searches several search engines simultaneously. Examples include MetaCrawler and Dogpile. See also individual search engine.
Specialized search engine –
A search engine that searches for information only on specific topics.
Subject directory –
A searchable database of Web sites organized by categories (e.g., Yahoo! Directory).
Paid placement –
The practice of paying a fee to a search engine company for inclusion in its search results and a guaranteed higher ranking within those results.
Paid inclusion –
The practice of paying a fee to a search engine company for inclusion in its index of possible results, without a guarantee of ranking.
Virtual library –
A collection of library holdings available online.
Invisible Web –
The portion of the Web that includes pass-protected sites, documents behind firewalls, and the contents of proprietary databases.
Boolean operators –
Words placed between the keywords in an Internet search that specify how the key words are related; examples include and, or, and not.
Field Searching –
A search tool in most Internet search engines that targets specific search parameters to narrow search results.
Gateway (information portal) –
A human directory that contains at least one hundred sites that have been reviewed by an expert.
Boolean operators –
Words placed between the keywords in an Internet search that specify how the key words are related; examples include and, or, and not.