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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
abstract words
describe intangible concepts that are difficult to picture
alliteration
the repetition of consents (usually the first or last letter in a word)
ambiguous word
words that have vague, unclear meanings that can be understood in more than one way
antithesis
occurs when a sentence contains two constrasting ideas in parallel phrases
assonance
the repetition of vowel sounds
concrete word
describe tangible things that listeners can picutres
euphemism
words with positive overtones substituted for words with negative overtones
forceful language
involves effective use of volume, emphasis and pitch
important in persuasion
adds to audience's confidence in the speaker
gobbledygook
using complex words or jargon in place of simple words.
bureacratese
hyperbole
extreme exaggeration used for emphasis
metaphor
implied comparisons and do not use like or as
onomatopoeia
words that sound like their meanings
buzz, hiss, swish, fizz, ring
parallelism
the grouping of similarly phrased ideas
personification
giving human characteristics to an animal, object, or concept
repetition
repeating a word or series of words in successive clauses or sentences
an effective way to keep listeners' attention
simile
make direct comparisons using like or as
style
the way a speaker uses language to express ideas
stylistic device
either rearranges sentencews in unusual ways or changes the main or ordinary meaning or a word
effective language style
simple language, specific language, vivid language, forceful language
stylistic device examples
alliterations and assonance, simile and metaphor, onomatopoeia, repetitions and parallelism, antithesis, hyperbole, personification
biased language
gender bias, culture bias
definition
a statement of what a thing is
demonstration speech
characterized by showing how to do or make something right
description
painting a vivid, detailed picture of the topic using concrete words and figures of speech such as similes, metaphors, and onomatopoeia
informational speech
increases awareness by introducing the latest information about a topic or body of related facts, or presents information promoting understanding of a comlicated idea, term or concept
narration
a story about real or imagined things, people, or events told with detail and enthusiasm
tools to aid understanding in informative speeches
definition, description, explanation, narration
steps in preparing an informative speech
ananlyze your potential audience, determine your topic, exact purpose, and main points, prepare a rought-draft outline of main points and desired information, research topic for material to support main points, select a variety of supporting materials, determine how best to organize main points, plan introduction and conclusion, make preparation outline and spekaing notes, prepare visual aids, rehearse your speech
attitude poll
find points on which you and your audience agree and learn audience objections ot your position
forum
open audience participation
motivated sequence
a method of organizing a persuasive speech that involves five steps: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action
panel
discussion team members informally discuss a problem or topic of interest in front of an audience
persuasion
communication that is intended to influence choice
position statement
the exact purpose of an informative speech
a simple sentence that states the speaker's position on the topic
speech to actuate
asks listeners for both intellectual agreement and action of some type
speech to convince
seeks intellectual agreement from listeners
symposium
each team member presents a formal 2-10 minute speech on once aspect of the symposium's topic
team
normally compoed of three to seven members who actively work together toward a particular goal, gathering information, or planning an informative or persuasive presnetation
team presentation
involves the collaborative organization and presentation of material by team members o an audience, often using one or a variety of public discussion formats: forum, symposium, panel, or some combination of the three
steps in preparing a persuasive speech
determine topic, position statement, and type of speech, analyze audience attitudes toward your position, prepare a rough-draft outline of main points and needed information, research your topic, select the best supporting materials, determine how best to organize your main points, plan the intro and conclusion, make preparation outline and speaking notes, prepare visual aids, rehearse your speech
analogical reasoning
occurs when you compare a familiar example with an unfamiliar one
begging the question
a type of circular reasong; it asserts that somethign is because it is
boomerang effect
means that fewer people agree with the speaker at the end of the speech than before it
causal reasoning
occurs when you imply a causal link between two items
dynamism
a speaking style characterized by forcefulness, enthusiasm and good vocal variety
Elaboration Likelihood Model
indicates which of two routes for processing arguements audience members will likely use
evidence
consists of factual statements and opinions originating from sources other than the speaker
fallacious reasoning
false of faulty reasoning
fear appeal
appeals that are designed to arouse negative emotions
hasty generalization
occurs when a conclusion is based on too few examples or on isolated examples
more common thatn inductive reasoning
inoculation theory
inoculating a listener against opposing ideas is similar to inoculating a person against a disease
logic
logos
the study of orderly thinking, the sequence and connection of thoughts and ideas as they relate to one another
nonfluency
inaccurate articulation, vocalized pauses and unnecessary repetition of words
post hoc
after the fact
occurs when the speaker claims a causal relationship simply because one event followed another event
slippery slope
occurs when a speaker asserts that taking a particular step will lead to a seriouis and undesirable consequence, and does not provide adequate evidence to support the assertion
social judgement theory
explains how people evaluate messages based on internal anchors (past experiences)-- the more ego involved we are with a social issue or topic, the more likely our judgements will be influenced by an internal anchor
Logical reasoning
deductive and inductive, analogical and causal
basic elements of credibiliity
trustworthiness, competency, dynamism