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You must understand your listeners'....

(4)
Attitudes

Beliefs

Values

Behavior
Attitudes - likes and dislikes, learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to something

Beliefs - what you understand to be true or false, convinced something exists or is true, usually based on evidence, but some on faith

Values - enduring conception of right and wrong, good or bad

Behavior - some speeches want to change behavior of listeners
What is the order of the following three from easiest to change to hardest to change??

Attitudes, Beliefs, Values
Attitudes

Beliefs - changed by evidence

Values
Factors that motivate us to respond with change in behavior
actual and perceived needs

tendency to avoid pain and seek pleasure

emotional reactions

compulsion to seek psychological balance and order in our lives
Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion

2 ways of being persuaded
1. logic, reasoning, arguments, and evidence presented to you

2. can be persuaded by peripheral strategies like music, overall feeling persuades you
Motivation
the underlying internal force that drives people to achieve their goals
Factors that determine whether or not more likely to be persuaded by a direct route (logic) or and indirect, peripheral route
the need to restore balance to their lives to avoid stress

need to avoid pain

desire to increase pleasure
Affective Cognitive Dissonance
experience a way of thinking inconsistent and uncomfortable with your current attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior

the speaker shows the audience is in a state of balance between their emotional and logical positions
Ways listeners can restore balance after cognitive dissonance
discredit the source

reinterpret the message - focus only on parts consistent with their thoughts

seek new information

stop listening

change their attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior
Maslow's Needs (5 in Order)
Must fulfill all the ones before it first

1. Physiological Needs
2. Safety Needs
3. Social Needs
4. Self-Esteem Needs
5. Self-Actualization Needs

(Reversed on pyramid)
1. Physiological Needs - most basic - air, water, food

2. Safety Needs - safety

3. Social Needs - need to feel loved and valued, need for sense of belonging to a group

4. Self-Esteem Needs - we want to think well of ourselves

5. Self-Actualization Needs - need to fully realize one's highest potential
Positive Motivation
statements that suggest good things will happen if the speaker's advice is heeded

Key is to know what you listeners value
4 Rules of Negative Motivation
-More effective to loved ones

-The more credible the speaker, the more likely a fear appeal will be successful

-successful if you can convince listeners the threat is real and your plan is the only way to solve it

-increased intensity of fear appeal increases chance of it being effective
Ethical Responsibility of Fear Appeals
The speaker who uses fear appeals has an ethical responsibility to be truthful and not exaggerate when trying to rouse listeners' fear
Best Persuasive Speech Topics
-important to you and your listeners

-important issues

-sensitive to cultural differences between you and audience
Proposition
a statement with which you want your audience to agree
3 Categories of Propositions
Proposition of Fact

Proposition of Value

Proposition of Policy
Proposition of Fact - whether something is true or false or did or did not happen. Focus on changing or reinforcing their beliefs with reasons why the proposition is true.

Proposition of Value - calls for the listener to judge the worth or importance of something. Usually directly compare two things and say that one is better.

Proposition of Policy - advocates a specific change in policy, procedure, or behavior
3 Rules to Put Persuasive Principles into Practice
1. express goal in terms that are consistent with attitudes, beliefs, values, and behavior of your audience.

2. Make advantages of proposition greater than disadvantages.

3. Make sure proposal meets listeners' needs.
Credibility
audience's perception of a speaker's competence, trustworthiness, and dynamism

(3)
Competence - informed, skilled, or knowledgeable; to improve cite credible evidence

Trustworthiness - honesty, earn by demonstrating you have experience dealing with the issue

Dynamism - energy, charisma, attractive and energetic; happens in delivery
Reasoning
Process of drawing a conclusion from evidence
To judge validity of generalization from inductive evidence...
enough specific instances that are typical and recent
Reasoning by Analogy
special type of inductive reasoning in which an analogy is used to compare one thing, person, or process with another to predict how something will perform or respond
Syllogism Structure
Major Premise
Minor Premise
Conclusion
Causal Reasoning
relating two events to show that one caused the other

can be used to predict or to explain and effect
Fact
something that has been directly observed to be true or can be proved to be true
Inference
conclusion based on available evidence or partial information
Examples
used to dramatize or clarify a fact

hypothetical examples should only be used to clarify a point, not to reach a conclusion
Opinions
can serve as evidence if expressed by an expert, most persuasive if combined with other evidence
Statistic
a number used to summarize several facts or samples
Fallacy
false reasoning that occurs when someone attempt to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate
Causal Fallacy
faulty causal connection, not enough evidence to support the cause-effect conclusion
Bandwagon Fallacy
everyone thinks its a good idea so you should too
Either/Or Fallacy
only two approaches to a complex problem
Hasty Generalization
reaches a conclusion from too little evidence or nonexistent evidence
Ad Hominem
attacking irrelevant personal characteristics of the person proposing and idea rather than the idea itself
Red Herring
using irrelevant facts or arguments as distractions
Appeal to Misplaced Authority
ex. ads use baseball players to endorse cars
Non Sequitur
conclusion doesn't follow from statement
Bases of emotional responses (3)
Pleasure, arousal, power
Myth
belief held in common by a group of people and based on their values, cultural heritage, and faith
Persuading the Receptive Audience
explore ideas in greater depth

ask them to act clearly and simply
Persuading the Neutral Audience
make them interested in what you have to say

capture attention early, refer to beliefs many people share
Persuading the Unreceptive Audience
find ways to enhance you acceptability to persuade them to listen to you

don't immediately announce you will change their minds, talk about areas of agreement first, understanding is the goal
Problem-Solution
works best when a clearly documented problem can be dealt with with your solution
Refutation
prove that arguments against your point of view are false

evidence, facts, and data are more effective than emotional arguments
Cause-Effect
one event caused another

because they occurred in succession does not prove that there is a cause-effect relationship
Monroe Motivated Sequence of Persuasion
1. Attention - use an attention getting device, Rhetorical questions, quotes, examples, no thematic Statement

2. Need - establish why your topic should concern your listeners that this need for a change affects them directly

3. Satisfaction - identify how plan will satisfy that need

4. Visualization - paint a verbal picture of how wonderful the future will be or how awful it will be if solution is not adopted

5. Action - tell audience the specific action they can take to implement your solution
2. Statement – clear, concise transitional statement of what the problem is

Illustration – persuading who, when, what, where is a problem

Ramification – how big the problem is, could be statistics

Pointing – tells audience how the problem affects them

3. Explanation – who, what, when, where, how

Theoretical Demonstration or a Reference to Practical Experience – theoretically it could work this way, it has been tried before and it has worked, practical experience is better

Meeting Objections – anticipate opponents arguments

4. Positive, Negative, or Method of Contrast

5. Individual action or Audience action (better to use this)
Three Types of Evidence
Rationally Processed Evidence (Logos)
Toulmin Model
Claim

Data

Evidence

Warrant

Backing

Qualifier

Reservation
Claim - Fact, Value, or Policy

Data – evidence to support the claim

Evidence - good expert material to support those claims that the audience would not agree with

Warrant - Analogical, Authoritative, Generalized

Backing - If you think it isn’t enough evidence, go get more evidence

Qualifier - always, usually, 70%, anything that qualifies how strong the claim is

Reservation – rebuttal, when that claim may not be true
Types of Warrants (Toulmin)
Analogical

Authoritative

Generalized
Analogical – because its similar to this situation must be true

Authoritative – because experts are saying it, it must be true

Generalized – because of all this evidence, it must be true

Many times will have generalized, authoritative that work together
Hasty Generalization
conclusion without enough evidence to support that conclusion
False Analogy/Cause
showing how two things are similar when they actually don’t have a lot in common or showing cause when it didn’t cause it, could be other causes
Post Hoc Ergo (sequential)
If one thing happens, something else has to happen
Slippery Slope
similar to Post Hoc but things are just going to get better and better or worse and worse, all these other things are going to happen if one thing happens
Faulty Statistics
giving false statistics or using them in a way that they aren’t meant to be used
Appeal to Tradition
we’ve always done this, we should always do this
False Dilemma
This is the only way to look at this, the only solution for it, the only view of this (usually uses the word only)
Ad Populum
everyone believes it so it must be true
Appeal to Emotion
not that you are appealing to emotion, but that is all you are using the persuade people
Appeal to Motivating Factors
what will motivate the audience to change

persuasive appeal
Appeal to Alternative Values
times are changing, so we too must change

persuasive appeal
Right Will Triumph
some person/group is being oppressed, we need to make this right

persuasive appeal
Winning is Everything
reward appeal for a group of people or society as a whole

persuasive appeal
Foot in the Door
starts with something easier and work up, initial request is something audience will do

persuasive appeal
Door in the Face
start with something audience won’t do but then say if you can’t do that, can you do this?

persuasive appeal
Routes to Persuasion
Central Route

Peripheral Route

Elaboration Likelihood Method
Central Route – logical appeals, best for long term change

Peripheral Route – more emotional appeal, best for immediate action

Elaboration Likelihood Method – use one of the two routes to get your audience to elaborate on the idea, which one is the most important in your speech because you will probably use both
Attribution Theory
attribute a cause to an event, if you get rid of the cause, get rid of the problem
Discounting Effect
If I can come up with another reason that could have caused this problem, not going to be persuaded
drug resistance mechanisms

penicillin/cephalosporins
1) b-lactamse cleavage of b-lactam ring
2) altered PBP in cases of MRSA or penicillin resistant s. pneumoniae.
Problem Audience Members
Speech Giver

Monopolizer

Fighter
Speech Giver – telling their own story, own information, go on and on, can tell them you will talk to the after

Monopolizer – wants to keep asking questions

Fighter – wants to keep disagreeing, Refute but don’t get angry