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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Prohibitory Policy

164
Policies that impose bans on certain actions or prohibit the expenditure of money.
Fiscal Policy

167
Deliberate use of the gov'ts taxing and spending powers to stimulate or restrain the economy by incurring budget deficits or surpluses.
Nullities

164
Policy without funding
Budget

167
-Conveys good overview of the gov'ts total set of policies
-Statement of policy
Four Steps of the Budgetary Process

168-169
1. Preparation
2. Authorization
3. Execution
4. Audit
Executive Preparation

169
In the executive branch, begins 9 months before it is sent to Congress in February.
Handled by OMB
Congressional Authorization

173
Two steps:
1. Substative legislation has to be enacted and authorizing the expenditure.
2. Money actually has to be made available for the policy/program
Budget Execution

181
Appropriations and other budgetary resources by time periods and by activities in order to ensure the effective use of available resources and to preclude the need for additional appropriations.
Auditing

169
Involves checking on expenditures for evidence of illegality, waste, or abuse. Handled by the GAO and IG.
Policy Implementers
Bureaucracies
Administrative Agencies
Legislature
Courts
Pressure Groups
Community Organizations
Bureaucracies

205
Complex array of administrative agencies
Administrative Agencies

206
Provided with broad and ambiguous statutory mandates that leave them with much room for choice in deciding what should or should not be done on some matter.
Legislature

207
Legislature uses
Committee Hearings
Specificity of Legislation
Senatorial Approval
Legislative Veto
Casework
The Courts

209
Legislation is enforced primarily through judicial action.
Pressure Groups

210
-Can participate in administration
Advisory bodies may become participants in policy administration
Community Organization

211
Local level, community and other organizations
Administrative Politics
-Basic Rules of the Game
-Chief Executive
-Congressional System of Oversight
-Courts
-Other Administrative Agencies
-Other Governments
-Interest Groups
-Political Parties
-Communications Media
Basic Rules of the Game

215
The relevant laws, rules, and regulations, accepted modes of procedure, and concepts of fair play that help form and guide official behavior and to which officials are expected to conform.
The Chief Executive

215
Within Presidential chain of command and/or control are most administrative agencies. He directs matters as top-level personnel appointments, budget recommendations, expenditure controls and policy directive.
Congressional System of Oversight

215
Supervisory system includes the standing committees and subcommittees, chairs, committee staffs, and influential members of Congress. Influence is fragmented and sporadic rather than monolithic and continuous.
The Courts

216
Agencies may be strongly affected by the judiciary's use of its powers of judicial review and statutory interpretation.
Other Administrative Agencies

216
Agencies with competing or overlapping jurisdictions may affect one another's operations.
Other Governments

216
State, municipal, and county governments, school districts, and associations of the state and local officials may attempt to influence a national agency's decisions
Interest Groups

217
Agenices sometimes seek group support to increase the size, ease, or effectiveness of their operations.
Political Parties

217
Appointment to top level positions may be influenced by considerations of party welfare and policy orientation.
Communications Media

217
Play an important part in shaping public opinion toward an agency by revealing and publicizing its actions, favorably unfavorably.
Rule-Making

223
Rule
Substantive Rule
Interpretive Rule
Procedural Rule
Rule

223
An agency statement of general or particular applicablility and future effect designed to implement, interpret, or prescribe law or policy or describing the organization, procedure, or practice requirements of an agency.
Substantive Rule

223
Fill in the details of general statutory provisions and have the force and effect of law.
Interpretive Rule

223
Indicate how an agency views or interprets the laws that enforces and the meaning it gives to statutory terms
Procedural Rule

223
Describe an agency's organization and how it will conduct various activities
Adminstrative Procedure Act Procedural Requirements

224
1. Notice of proposed rule to be published in the Federal Register
2. Opportunity must be provided for interested persons to participate in the process
3. Statement of the rule's basis and purpose must be in the final rule
4. Final rule must be published at least 30 days before it becomes effective
Adjudication

225
Agencies can make policy when they apply existing laws or rules to particular situations by case-to-case decision making.
Law Enforcement

226
Molding policy through various _____ actions. Allows for discretion in enforcement of policy
Program Operations

227
Many agencies administer programs to help people which determines policy both directly and indirectly.
Techniques of Control

229
-Noncoercive Forms of Action
-Inspection
-Licensing
-Loans, Subsidies, and Benefits
-Contracts
-General Expenditures
-Market and Proprietary Operations
-Taxation
-Directive Power
-Services
-Informal Procedures
-Sanctions
Technique of Control: Noncoercive Forms of Action

231
Policies that do not involve the imposition of legal sanctions or penalties, reward, or deprivations.
Technique of Control:
Examples of Noncoercive Forms of Action

231
-Declarations of policy by themselves may cause people to comply
-Voluntary standards established by official action
-Mediation and conciliation to settle labor-management disputes
-Publicity
-Educational and demonstration programs
Technique of Control: Inspection

232
Licensing, or enabling action, involves gov't authorization to engage in a business or profession to to do something otherwise forbidden.
Technique of Control:
Loans, Subsidies, and Benefits
-Financial means by which policy is advanced
-May include explicit regulatory features.
Technique of Control: Contracts

233
Governmental programs with private companies; serve as the basis for specific economic controls.
Technique of Control:
General Expenditures

234
Used for purchasing goods and services to attain various policy goals
Technique of Control:
Market and Proprietary Operations

234
Used by the Fed. Reserve Board to expand or contract the money supply in the economy.
Technique of Control:
Taxation

234
Not only provide revenue but also serve to sanction or encourage certain types of behavior.
Technique of Control: Directive Power

235
Through the use of adjudicatory proceeding issue orders that are binding on private parties.
Technique of Control:
Services

235
Policies of the distributive variety involve the provision of services such as information, advice, legal counsel, medical treatment, and psychiatric services.
Technique of Control:
Informal Procedures

236
Settling questions involving private rights, privileges, and interests without formal action and adversary hearings.
Technique of Control: Sanctions

236
Devices, penalties, and rewards that agencies use to encourage or compel compliance
Causes of Compliance

241
-Respect for reasonable authority
-Reasoned, conscious acceptance
Policy Outputs

260
The things that are actually done by agencies
Policy Outcomes

256
Sometimes called results, are the consequences for society intended and unintended, that stem from deliberate gov't action or inaction
Policy Dimensions

256
1. Affect the public problem
2. May affect situations
3. Have consequences for future as well as current conditions
4. Policies entail costs
5. Effects may be either material or symbolic
Policy Evaluation

260
1. Legislators, administrators, judges, media, have always made judgements about policy
2. Process, operation, administration of a policy
3. Systematic objective evaluation
4. Experimental design
5. Quasi-experiment
6. Before and after study
Experimental Design

262
Uses two groups, one that receives the policy or program, the other does not.
Quasi-Experiment

262
A treatment group is compared with another group that is similar in many respects.
Before and After Study

263
Compares the results of a program after a period of implementation with the conditions existing prior to its inception
Policy Evaluators: Nongovernmental Actors

264
Communications media, university scholars, research centers, private research organizations
Policy Evaluators: Congressional Oversight

265
Primary function of Congress is the supervision and evaluation of the adminstration and execution of laws and policies
Oversight Techniques

265
1. Casework
2. Committee hearing and investigation
3. Appropriations process
4. Approval of Presidential appointments
5. Committee staff studies
Policy Evaluators:
Governmental Accountability Office (GAO)

266
An arm of Congress, has the authority to audit the operations and financial activities of federal agencies and report findings to Congress.
Policy Evaluators:
Presidential Commissions

268
Whether evaluating policy, fact finding, making policy recommendation, they are involved in evaluation to some degree.
Policy Evaluators:
Administrative Agencies

269
Evaluate policy on their own or at the direction of Congress or the executive.
Usually evaluated with a 5 yr. plan
Problems in Policy Evaluation

270
-Uncertainty over Policy Goals
-Difficulty in Determining Casuality
-Diffuse Policy Impact
-Difficulties in Data Acquisition
-Official Resistance
-Limited Time Perspective
-Evaluation Lacks Influence
Problems in Policy Evaluation:
Uncertainty over Policy Goals

271
When goals of a policy are unclear, diffuse or diverse
Problems in Policy Evaluation:
Difficulty in Determining Causality

271
Unable to determine if the policy is making a positive change or not
Problems in Policy Evaluation:
Diffuse Policy Impact

272
Policy actions that affect groups other than those at whom they are specifically directed.
Problems in Policy Evaluation:
Difficulties in Data Acquistion

272
A shortage of accurate and relevant statistical data may handicap the evaluator
Problems in Policy Evaluation:
Official Resistance

274
Program officials may discourage or disparage evaluation studies, refuse access to data, or keep incomplete records when a negative impact is possible
Problems in Policy Evaluation:
Evaluation Lacks Influence

275
An evaluation ignored or attacked as inclusive or unsound based upon evaluation poor design, data used inadequate, or findings inconclusive
Cost-benefit Analysis

275
A formal, quantitative evaluation technique that requires identifying the costs and benefits of either a proposed or actual policy and translating them into monetary values for purposes of comparison
Cost-benefit Analysis Steps

275
1. Identify all the effects and categorize as cost or benefit.
2. Dollar values are placed on various costs and benefits
3. Establish a discount rate to equate the value of present and future effects.
4. Compare all direct and indirect, current and future costs and benefits.