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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
best ways for safeguarding food...(2)
1- clean hands, tools, etc
2- don't use unusual looking and smelling foods (also damaged cans etc.)
food temperature guidlines...
more in US than anywhere else in world
______ has been a major force behind removal of major diseases like typhoid, cholera, shingellosis, & others
sewage treatment
content % in sewage
99.9% water
0.1% solid or dissolved waste
waste contents include (5)
human feces
grease, garbage disposal waste, industrial waste
**rain water & any waste carried by it**
serious problems may be caused by large amounts of waste ... why
rivers are a major source of water & waste & sewage are dumped into rivers
large amounts of untreated waste ... (can cause)
disease outbreaks
3 steps in sewage treatment
1- primary
2- secondary
3- tertiary
what does the primary step in sewage treatment entail
removal of as much solid waste as possible
devices used in primary step of sewage treatment
filters, skimmers, and chemical flocculating agents (ie: aluminum sulfate)
secondary sewage treament entails
biological degredation using microbes (sphaerotilus, beggiatoa)
the oxygenation maintained to facilitate breakdown in secondary sew. trtmt is what kind of process
aerobic process
anaerobic process in 2ndary s.t. uses organisms like...
methanoccus and peptococcus ( in sludge digesters - methane is produced as a by product and used for cooking & heating
what is the undigested material removed from 2ndary s.t. used for
soil conditioner
what part of 2ndary s.t is released in rivers
effluent is chlorinated and released
t/f -- municipal sewage treatment (3 steps) is not really required by law in all municipalities
the most expensive type of municipal s.t is
tertiary -- (involves both physical and chemical)
what can be an issue with tertiary treatment in the US
chlorine use -- many European countries use ozone instead
how many American families use a septic tank system
about 50 million
the beneficial septic microbes may be damaged by flushing..
poisons or grease
septic...drains need to be replaced typically every
10-15 years
composting toilet (european system)
clivus multrium
clivus multrium primarily deals with...
after 2-4 years in the clivus multrium what happens
the rich hummus is applied to garden soil
(why not just piss in the garden?)
know the different h2o treatment mechanisms etc.
where would organic chlorination typically be used
long haul ships
how much water is rendered pottable per citizen daily in USA
1800 gallons
2 sources of water
surface (rivers & lakes) and ground water
how many steps in water purification
10 steps
#1 -- aeration
removes taste, odor, iron and manganese rendered insoluble
#2 -- what gases are removed
dissolved gases...Co2 etc.
#3 -- what adds freshness
#4 -- sedimentation
removes turbidity, organisms, etc
#5 -- filtration type
sand bed filtration
#6 -- softening
makes water more ussable. Nazeolite is used (Ca & Mg are removed, Na is added)
#7 -- disinfection
Na or K hypochlorite is used to kill microbes
#8 -- absorption
activated charcoal (odor & any taste are removed)
#9 -- corrosion correction
Bitumen (inert tar coal prod) used to surface inside of iron pipes
use of biumen in iron pipes prevents
#10 -- UV light
might one day replace chlorination
cryptosporidium parvum causes
testing water basically revolves around identifying
lactose fermentation tests
coliforms in water
eosin methylene blue agar
green metallic sheen
filter paper disc
e.coli, no more than 1.05 colony forming units/ml allowed
how many people die/day from bad water
relative % of water
lakes & glaciers
saline lakes
ground moisture
snow caps
largest aquifer in US
know table 26.1
know table 26.1
increase bio oxygen demand of water
organic wastes
cause disease in humans who drink the water
pathogenic organisms
increase the salinity and acidity of water and render it toxic
inorganic chemicals and minerals
can cause birth defects, cancer, neurological damage, and other illness
synthetic organic chemicals (herbicides, pesticides etc.)
cause excessive and sometimes uncontrolled growth of aquatic plants...impart undesirable tastes to drinking water
plant nutrients
cause silting of waterways and destruction of hydroelectric equipment near dams. reduce light reaching plants in water and oxygen content in water
sediments from land erosion
can cause cancer, birth defects, radiation sickness in large doses
radioactive waste
reduces oxygen solubility in water. alters habitats and kinds of organisms present.
heated water
nuclear plant is US..water is still contaminated
3 mile island
how many midnight dumping sites
over 3000
chemical company that dumped waste into Love Canal in New York
Hooker Chemical Co
Nobel prize for synthesis of DDT
Hans Mueller
how many tons of DDT sprayed on US soil
800 million tons from 1948 - 1974
most polluted city in the world
Cubatao, Brazil
(increases of bladder cancer)
polluting gases which are completely absent from the normal atmosphere
nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide, sulfur trioxide
polluting gases present in normal atmosphere but their quantities are very low
nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, ozone
size of ozone whole
77000 sq miles
how many extinct species b/c of climate change
at least 36000 - 43000 species
30-40 species/hectare (here)
400/hectare (rainforest)
major rain forest products
quinine, cinchona, coco

catharanthus roseus - antidiabetic taxol
shaw's botanical garden
peter raven
predicted increase in sea levels by 2050
9 foot increase
process removes co2 from the atmosphere
phenomena associated with DDT
tons of solid waste per year
5.5 billion
(65 kg per day per person)
fate of solid waste in the USA
depo in landfills -- 82%
incinerated -- 7%
recycled -- 10%
composted -- 1%
sources of solid waste
agriculture - 51%
mining - 38%
industrial - 8%
municipal - 3%
trees cut down per week
1 million
ozone shield destruction (2)
halons (contain bromine)
secondary pollutant (not sure signif)
peracetonitryls (PANs)
chlorinated hydrocarbons (broad spectrum insecticides) may cause...
nerve poisons that cause convulsions, paralysis, and death
organophosphates (broad & narrow spectrum insecticides) may cause
nerve poisons that inactivate the enzyme that transmits impulses (half life 1-12 weeks)
carbamates (broad & narrow spectrum insecticides)
nerve poisons
Archaeological evidence show that even 2000 BC city planning kept in mind such environmental considerations (safe water, disposal of waste, clean air tec)
environmental movements became prevalent in US when
1960 mannnn
when was the epa created
according to wack jobs....
6 Environment today compared to what should have been
o In last 75-100 years has changed environment more than billion years that this Earth has been in existence
Pollution: What is it?
Substance completely absent in normal environment normally or quantity greater than normal
What are the sources of pollution?
Single largest group of pollutants are chemicals
Heat is a pollutant: Global warming
Radiation – UV light
What is polluted rather what is NOT polluted?
There is no place on Earth that is NOT polluted
what is the most polluted part of the atmosphere
troposphere (what we depend on for inhalation)
what does the stratosphere project
uv light from extra-terrestrial bodies
main source of damage to stratosphere
30,000 die/day from ____
dirty water
type of smog causing a major problem in California
photochemical smog
how are PANs formed
burning of fossil fuels
temperature inversion is capable of _____...
suspending polluted air for weeks
ozone destruction caused by ____
CFCs & halons
uv rays can be class as ___
#1 source of drinking water
surface water
ogalala means
life sustaining
Brought national birds onto list of endangered species because _______ interferes in calcium metabolism and thinning of egg shells took place
1975 law -- all municipalities over _____ people must have at least a ______ level of sewage treatment facility
common source of halons
fire extinguishers
4 environmental effects of major concern
photochemical smog
acid deposition
greenhouse effect
destruction of ozone