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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
7 Features of Public Speaking/Basic Communication Transaction
1. Speaker- sender
2. Listener- receiver
3. Message- content
4. Channel- way of message arrival
5. Feedback
6. Communication situation- setting
7. Culture
Organizational patterns of speech
Ethos
-Competence-the speaker's appearance of being informed, intelligent, and well-prepared.
-Integrity-the quality of being ethical, honest, and dependable.
-Likeableness-the quality of radiating goodness and goodwill and inspiring audience affection in return.
-Dynamism-impact made on listeners whenthey perceive a speaker as confident, decisive, and enthusiastic.
Designs for Persuasive Speaking
1.Problem-solution design-listeners are first persuaded that they have a problem and then are shown how to solve it.
2.Motivated sequence design-arouses attention,demonstrates a need, satisfys need, visualizes results, and calls to action
3.Refutative design-tries to raise doubts about, damage, or destroy an opposing position.
Introduction
-captures attention
-establishes your credibility
-previews your message
Body
-Fact-has been proven and are known
-Opinion-personal feeling
-Statistics-facts in numerical form
-Testimony
*expert testimony- comes from those qualified by training
*lay testimony- wisdom of ordinary people is highly regarded
*prestige testimony-associates your message w/words of a respected public figure
-Examples
*brief example- 1 or 2 sentences demonstrating sentence
*extended example-detailed and allows full demonstration
*factual example-based on an actual event or a real person
*hypothetical example- a composite of what could happen
How to use body paragraphs...
-comparison-showing similarities
-contrast- showing differences
-analogy-both comparing and contrasting
-figurative analogy- combines subjects from different realms of experience
Conclusion
-summarize message
-concluding remarks
-provides closure
Visual Aids
-pie graphs- show the relationships between parts and a whole
-bar graphs- highlight comparisons and contrasts
-line graphs- shows changes over time
-mountain graphs-variation of line graphs that use different colors to fill in the areas
-flow charts-used to outline the steps in a process or to show power and authority relationships within an organization
-sequence charts- are presented in succession can be especially effective in speeches to emphasize and illustrate various stages in a process
-textual graphics-lists of phrases,words, or numbers
Researching the speech and support for the speech
-General function- to inform, to persuade, or to celebrate
-specific purpose- what you want your listeners to understand, believe, feel, or do
listening skills and duties
-hearing- the ability to hear physically
-listening- attaches meaning to hearing
-constructive- reaching an understanding w/the speaker
*critical-judgmental listening
*appreciative- listen for enjoyment
*empathic- interpersonal listening
*comprehensive-listening to learn
4 primary types of audiences
pedestrian
passive
selected
conserted
four types of speaking
•Impromptu- speaking with little or no preparation; relying on what you already know; no time to get nervous
•Memorized- organized and structured; stage presence; memorize ideas instead of exact words cause you may forget it
•Manuscript- a read speech.
•Extemporaneous- a well researched, rehearsed, and organized content combined with your own personal art, flare, style, and demeanor of delivery.
five ways to persuade
1.Adoption- to start doing something…to start thinking a certain way
2.Continuance-motivational speech to continue or encourage one on the same path
3.Discontinuance- persuade to stop something that they were already doing
4.Deterrence- issuing the dangers or of avoidance…precautionary speech
5.Pro/ Con strategy- being neutral about one of the two items
narrowing topic
-General function- to inform, to persuade, or to celebrate
-specific purpose- what you want your listeners to understand, believe, feel, or do
guidelines of language use
Six C's
-clarity
-color
-correctness
-concreteness
-conciseness
-cultural sensitivity

Figurative Language
-metaphor-surprises us with implied, unusual comparison.
-simile-signals and softens the comparison with words such as like or as
-personification-attributes human form and feeling to inanimate objects
-enduring metaphors-metaphors that transcend time and cultural boundaries
-culturetypes-words taht express the values, identity, and goals of a group
-words tahat express a country's basic political beliefs

-Antithesis-presenting contrasting ideas in parallel phrases
-Inversion-chaging the expected word order
-Parallel construction-repetition of words/phrases at beginning or end of sentences

-Alliteration- repetition of initial sounds in closely connected words
-Onomatopoeia-words taht imitate natural sounds
informative speaking
speech aimed at extending understanding
persuasive speaking
speech intended to influence the attitudes or actions of listeners