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483 Cards in this Set

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cognition
process of thought--including reasoning, judgement, and perception

the ability to think and reason
nerve impulse
electrical signal transmitted along the nerve fiber in response to a stimulus
neurotransmitters
chemicals in the brain that transmit messages between nerve cells (neurons)
peripheral
pertaining to the outside, surface, or surrounding area of an organ or structure or occurring away from the center
traumatic
caused by or pertaining to an injury
vascular
pertaining to or composed of blood vessels
vascul
vessel (usually blood or lymph
neurology
the branch of medicine concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the nervous system, which include the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord

the control center of the body
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
peripheral nerves, including the cranial nerves (emerging from the base of the skull) and the spinal nerves (emerging from the spinal cord)
two types of cells comprising the nervous system
neurons

neuroglia
neuron
basic structural and functional unit of the nervous system

grouped into bundles of nerves or nerve tracts that carry electrical messages throughout the body

perform functions such as perception of sensory stimuli, learning, memory, and control of muscles and glands
neuroglia
a.k.a. glial cells

do not carry messages

support and protection functions; form supporting network by twining around nerve cells or lining certain structures in the brain and spinal cord, while others bind nervous tissue to supporting structures and attach the neurons to their blood vessels

certain small neuroglia are phagocytic and protect the CNS from disease by engulfing invading microbes and clearing away debris

they are of clinical interest because they are a common source of tumors (gliomas) of the nervous system
cerebr/o
cerebrum
cerebrospinal
pertaining to the brain (cerebrum) and spine or spinal cord
spin
spine
encephal/o
brain
encephalitis
inflammation of the brain
gli/o
glue, neuroglial tissue
glioma
tumor composed of neuroglial tissue (supportive tissue of the nervous system)
mening/o
meninges (membranes covering brain and spinal cord)
meningocele
herniation, or saclike protrusion of the meninges through the skull or vertebral column
meningioma
tumor composed of meninges
myel/o
bone marrow; spinal cord
neur/o
nerve
-lepsy
seizure
epi-
above, upon
-phasia
speech
dys-
bad, painful, difficult
dysphasia
difficulty speaking or impairment in the production of speech
hemiparesis
paralysis of one half of the body (left half or right half)
-paresis
partial paralysis
para-
near, beside, beyond
-plegia
paralysis
paraplegia
paralysis of both legs and the lower half of the body
quadri-
four
quadriplegia
paralysis of all four extremities
neuroma
tumor composed of nervous tissue
neurolysis
separation or destruction of a nerve
encephaloma
tumor composed of brain tissue
encephalocele
herniation or protrusion of brain tissue
myelalgia

myelodynia
pain in the spinal cord or its membranes
myelocele
herniation of the spinal cord
dementia
progressive, irreversible deterioration of mental function marked by memory impairment and, commonly, deficits in reasoning, judgment, abstract thought, comprehension, learning, task execution, and use of language
Alzheimer disease
chronic, organic brain syndrome characterized by death of neurons in the cerebral cortex and their replacement by microscopic "plaques," which results in dementia that progresses to complete loss of mental, emotional, and physical functioning and personality changes
epilepsy
disorder that results from the generation of electrical signals inside the brain, causing recurring seizures in which some people simply stare blankly for a few seconds during a seizure, while others have extreme convulsions
Huntington chorea
inherited, degenerative disease of the CNS with symptoms developing in middle age as nerve cells in the brain waste away, resulting in uncontrolled bizarre movements, emotional disturbances, and mental deterioration
hydrocephalus
condition caused by an accumulation of fluid within the ventricles of the brain that causes pressure build-up, distension of the ventricles in the brain, and compression of brain tissue, and which, if left untreated, causes a grossly enlarged head and mental retardation
hydro
water
cephal
head
-us
condition, structure
multiple sclerosis (MS)
progressive degenerative disease of the CNS characterized by inflammation, hardening, and loss of myelin throughout the spinal cord and brain, which produces weakness and other muscle symptoms
scler
hardening, sclera (white of eye)
-osis
abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
neuroblastoma
malignant tumor composed mainly of cells resembling neuroblasts that occurs most commonly in infants and children
blast
embryonic cell
-oma
tumor
neurosis
nonpsychotic mental illness that triggers feelings of distress and anxiety and impairs normal behavior
palsy
partial or complete loss of motor function; also called paralysis
Bell's palsy
facial paralysis on one side of the face due to inflammation of a facial nerve
cerebral
bilateral, symmetrical, nonprogressive motor dysfunction and partial paralysis, which is usually caused by damage to the cerebrum during gestation or birth trauma but can also be hereditary
paralysis
loss of muscle function, loss of sensation, or both as a result of spinal cord injury
Parkinson disease
progressive neurological disorder caused by a neurotransmitter deficiency (dopamine) that affects the portion of the brain responsible for controlling movement and results in hand tremors, uncontrollable head nodding, shuffling gait, and difficulty talking, swallowing, or completing simple tasks
poliomyelitis
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, commonly resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
poli/o
gray; gray matter (of brain or spinal cord)
psychosis
mental disorder marked by loss of contact with reality; often with delusions and hallucinations
sciatica
severe pain in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve, which travels from the hip to the foot
shingles
eruption of acute, inflammatory, herpetic vesicles caused by herpes zoster virus on the trunk of the body along a peripheral nerve
spina bifida
congenital neural tube defect characterized by incomplete closure of the spinal canal thought which the spinal cord and meninges may or may not protrude
spina bifida occulta
most common and least severe form of spina bifida without protrusion of the spinal cord or meninges
spina bifida cystica
more severe type of spina bifida that involves protrusion of the meninges (meningocele), spinal cord (myelocele) or both (meningomyelocele)
stroke
brain tissue damage caused by a disorder within the blood vessels that is usually due to the formation of a clot or a ruptured blood vessel; also called a cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
interruption in blood supply to the brain that does not cause permanent brain damage but may be an indication of a higher risk of a more serious and debilitating condition (stroke); also called a ministroke
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis
laboratory test used to examine a sample of CSF fluid obtained from a lumbar puncture which is analyzed for presence of blood, bacteria, malignant cells, as well as for the amount of protein and glucose present
lumbar puncture (LP)
insertion of a needle into the subarachnoid space of the spinal column to withdraw a sample of CSF used for biochemical, microbiological, and cytological laboratory analysis; also called spinal tap or spinal puncture
craniotomy
surgical procedure that creates an opening in the skull to gain access to the brain during neurosurgical procedures
crani/o
cranium (skull)
-tomy
incision
thalamotomy
partial destruction of the thalammus to treat psychosis or intractable pain
thalam/o
thalamus
medull/o
medulla
cerebell/o
cerebellum
anesthetics
produce partial or complete loss of sensation with or without loss of consciousness
general anesthetics
produce complete loss of feeling with loss of consciousness
local anesthetics
produce loss of feeling and affect a local area only
anticonvulsants
prevent or control seizures
antiparkinsonian agents
reduce the signs and symptoms associated with Parkinson disease
spastic
increased muscular tension and hyperactive reflexes
ischem
to hold back, block
C1, C2, and so on
first cervical vertebra, second cervical vertebra, and so on
CO
coccygeal nerves
CVA
cerebrovascular accident;

costovertebral angle
CVD
cerebrovascular disease
EEG
electrocardiogram;
electroencephalography
L1, L2, and so on
first lumbar vertebra, second lumbar vertebra, and so on
MS
mitral stenosis; musculoskeletal; multiple sclerosis; mental status; magnesium sulfate
S1, S2, and so on
first sacral vertebra, second sacral vertebra, and so on
T1-T12
first thoracic vertebra, second thoracic vertebra, and so on
deglutition
the act of swallowing
jaundice
condition of yellowness of the skin and the mucous membranes
adenocarcinoma
a malignant tumor o fa glandular organ
pruritus
itching
biliary
pertaining to bile
meningitis
infection of the meninges
homeostasis
relative equilibrium in the internal environment of the body
flaccid
loss of reflexes and body tone, often accompanying aging
aphasia
absence of speech/language function that may be the result of an injury to the cerebral cortex
arth
joint
-plasty
surgical repair
articulate
site of contact between two bones; also called a joint
contraction
shortening or tightening of a muscle
musculoskeletal
pertaining to muscles and the skeleton
muscul/o
muscle
skelet
skeleton
radiography
production of captured shadow images on photographic film through the action of ionizing radiation passing through the body from an external source
radi/o
radiation, x-ray; radius (lower arm bone on thumb side)
-graphy
process of recording
synovial fluid
lubricating fluid of the joint secreted by the synovial membrane in the joint
orthopedics
branch of medicine concerned with prevention, diagnosis, care, and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders

these disorders include injury to or disease of the body's bones, joints, ligaments, muscles, and tendons
orthopedists
a medical doctor who employs medical, physical, and surgical methods, such as hip arthroplasty, to restore function lost as a result of injury or disease to the musculoskeletal system

they also coordinate their treatments with other health care providers, such as physical therapists, occupational therapists, and sports medicine physicians
rheumatologist
a medical doctor who specializes in treatment of arthritis and other diseases of joints, muscles, and bones
chiropractor
another health care provider who treats musculoskeletal disorders

unlike orthopedists, they are not physicians and do not employ drugs or surgery, the primary basis of treatment used by medical physicians
chiropractic medicine
system of therapy based on the theory that disease is caused by pressure on nerves

also utilize radiography to diagnose pathological disorders and determine the most effective type of treatment

in most instances, chiropractic treatment involves physical manipulation of the spinal column
musculoskeletal system
includes muscles, bones, joints, and related structures, such as the tendons and connective tissue

these structures function to support and move body parts and organs
muscle functions (4)
- produce body movements
- stabilize body position
- store and move substances within the body
- generate heat
Through contraction, muscles cause and help maintain _______ __________
body posture
Other muscle motions include:
- passage and elimination of food through the digestive system
- propulsion of blood through the arteries
- contraction of the bladder to eliminate urine
- allow range of motion for the contraction and relaxation of muscle fibers
The main function of bones is to:
form a skeleton that supports and protects the body
Bones also serve as storage area for:
mineral salts, especially calcium and phosphorus
Synovial fluid lubricates joints to:
minimize friction upon motion
maxill/o
maxilla
clavicul/o
clavicle
scapul/o
scapula
ili/o
ilium
pub/o
pubis
ischi/o
ischium
pelv/o, pelv/i
pelvic
tars/o
tarsals (ankle bones)
metatars/o
metatarsals
phalang/o
phalanges (bones of fingers and toes)
metacarp/o
metacarpals (hand bones)
uln/o
ulna
cost/o
ribs
humer/o
humerus (upper arm bone)
fasci/o
band, fascia (fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscles)
fascioplasty
surgical repair of fascia
fibr/o
fiber, fibrous tissue
fibroma
tumor of fibrous tissue
leiomy/o
smooth muscle (visceral)
leiomyoma
tumor of smooth muscle
lumb/o
loins (lower back)
lumbocostal
pertaining to the lumbar region and the ribs
muscular
pertaining to muscles
myorrhexis
rupture of a muscle
-rrhexis
rupture
my/o
muscle
ten/o
tendon
tenotomy
incision of a tendon
tend/o
tendon
tendoplasty
surgical repair of a tendon
tendin/o
tendon
carp/o
carpus (wrist bones)
carpoptosis
downward displacement of the wrist; also called dropped wrist
-ptosis
prolapse, downward displacement
cervic/o
neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)
cervical
pertaining to the neck
subcostal
beneath the ribs
sub-
under, below
metacarpectomy
excision or resection of one or more metacarpal bones
humeral
pertaining to the humerus
spondyl/o
vertebra (backbone)

used to form words about the CONDITION of the structure (e.g., spondylolisthesis)
vertebr/o
vertebra (backbone)

used to form words that describe the STRUCTURE
stern/o
sternum (breastbone)
spondylitis
inflammation of any of the vertebrae, usually characterized by stiffness and pain
vertebral
pertaining to a vertebra or the vertebral column
sternocostal
pertaining to the sternum and ribs
-ectomy
excision, removal
calcane/o
calcaneum (heel bone)
calcaneodynia
painful condition of the heel
-dynia
pain
femor/o
femur (thigh bone)
femoral
pertaining to the femur (thigh bone)
fibul/o
fibula (smaller, outer bone of the lower leg)
fibular
pertaining to the fibula
patell/o
patella (kneecap)
patellectomy
excision of the patella
pelv/i

*exception to the rule of "o" as connecting vowel
pelvis
pelvimetry
measurement of the pelvic dimensions or proportions
pelvis
refers to the pelvis (hipbone)
pelv/o
pelvis
radiograph
x-ray image
-metry
act of measuring
-graph
instrument for recording
tibi/o
tibia (larger bone of lower leg)
tibial
pertaining to the tibia (shin bone)
ankyl/o
stiffness; bent, crooked
ankylosis
immobility of a joint
arthr/o
joint
arthrodesis
surgical fixation of a joint
-desis
binding, fixation (of a bone or joint)
chondr/o
cartilage
costochondritis
inflammation of cartilage of the anterior chest wall (ribs)
lamin/o
lamina (part of vertebral arch)
laminectomy
excision of the lamina (bony arches of one or more vertebrae--commonly used to denote removal of the posterior arch)
orth/o
straight
ped
foot; child
-ics
pertaining to
oste/o
bone
-porosis
porous
-clasia
to break; surgical fracture
arthroclasia
surgical breaking of adhesions to improve mobility of a joint
osteoclast
cell that breaks down bone
hemiplegia
paralysis of one side of the body
myosarcoma
malignant tumor of muscle tissue
diaphysis
shaft or middle region of a long bone
periosteum
layer that covers the surface of a bone
-clast
to break
hemi-
half
-sarcoma
malignant tumor of connective tissue
dia-
through, across
peri-
around
osteocytes
bone cells
osteodynia, ostealgia
pain in bones
osteoarthropathy
disease of bones and joints
osteogenesis
beginning or formation of bones
cervicobrachial
pertaining to the neck and arm
cervicofacial
pertaining to the neck and face
myeloma
tumor of the bone marrow
myelosarcoma
sarcoma of bone marrow (cells)
myelography
radiography of the spinal cord
myelomalacia
abnormal softening of the spinal cord
suprasternal
pertaining to above the sternum
sternoid
resembling the breastbone
-malacia
softening
supra-
above
-oid
resembling
chondroblast
embryonic cell that forms cartilage
pelvimeter
instrument for measuring the pelvis
myospasm
twitching of a muscle
myopathy
any disease of muscle
muscular dystrophy (MD)
group of hereditary diseases characterized by progressive degeneration of the muscles, leading to increasing weakness and debilitation, including Duchenne dystrophy (most common form)
-trophy
development, nourishment
myasthenia gravis (MG)
autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by progressive fatigue and severe muscle weakness, particularly evident with facial muscles and ptosis of the eyelids
rotator cuff injury
injury to the capsule of the shoulder joint, which is reinforced by muscles and tendons; also called musculotendinous rotator cuff injury
sprain
trauma to a joint that causes injury to the surrounding ligament, accompanied by pain and disability, such as an eversion sprain that occurs when the foot is twisted outward
strain
trauma to a muscle from overuse or excessive forcible stretch
talipes equinovarus
congenital deformity of the foot; also called clubfoot
tendinitis
inflammation of a tendon, usually caused by injury or overuse; also called tendonitis
torticollis
spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles, causing stiffness and twisting of the neck; also called wryneck
arthritis
inflammation of a joint usually accompanied by pain, swelling, stiffness, and commonly, changes in structure
gouty arthritis
arthritis caused by excessive uric acid in the body; also called gout
osteoarthritis
progressive, degenerative joint disease characterized by bone spurs (osteophytes) and destruction of articular cartilage; inflammation of bones and joints
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
pain or numbness resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (wrist canal through which the flexor tendons and median nerve pass)
contracture
fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint
crepitation
grating sound made by movement of bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction
Ewing sarcoma
malignant tumor that develops from bone marrow, usually in long bones or the pelvis, and most commonly in adolescent boys
fracture
any break in a bone
herniated disk
herniation or rupture of the nucleus pulposus (center gelatinous material within an intervertebral disk) between two vertebrae; also called prolapsed disk
osteoporosis
decrease in bone density with an increase in porosity, causing bones to become brittle and increasing the risk of fractures
Paget disease
skeletal disease affecting elderly people that causes chronic inflammation of bones, resulting in thickening and softening of bones and bowing of long bones; also called osteitis deformans
rickets
form of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency; also called rachitis
sequestrum
fragment of a necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue
kyphosis
increased curvature of the thoracic region of the vertebral column, leading to a humpback posture; also called hunchback
kyph
humpback
lordosis
forward curvature of the lumbar region of the vertebral column, leading to a swayback posture
lord
curve, swayback
scoliosis
abnormal sideward curvature of the spine to the left or right that eventually causes back pain, disk disease, or arthritis
scoli
crooked, bent
ankylosing spondylitis
chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin that first affects the spine and is characterized by fusion and loss of mobility of two or more vertebrae; also called rheumatoid spondylitis
spondylolisthesis
partial forward dislocation of one vertebra over the one below it, most commonly the fifth lumbar vertebra over the first sacral vertebra; also called spinal cord compression
subluxation
partial or complete dislocation of a bone from its normal location within a joint, causing loss of function of the joint; also called partial dislocation
arthrocentesis
puncture of a joint space with a needle to obtain samples of synovial fluid for diagnostic purposes, instill medications, or remove accumulated fluid from joints to relieve pain
arthroscopy
visual examination of the interior of a joint and its structures using a thin, flexible, fiberoptic scope called an arthroscope, which contains a miniature camera and projects images on a monitor to guide instruments during procedures
-centesis
surgical puncture
-scopy
visual examination
arthroplasty
surgical reconstruction or replacement of a painful, degenerated joint to restore mobility in rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis or to correct a congenital deformity
total hip arthroplasty
replacement of the femoral head and acetabulum with prostheses that are fastened into the bone; also called total hip replacement (THR)
sequestrectomy
excision of a sequestrum (segment of necrosed bone)
sequestr
separation
bone reabsorption inhibitors
reduce the reabsorption of bones in treatment of weak and fragile bones as seen in osteoporosis and Paget disease
gold salts
treat rheumatoid arthritis by inhibiting activity within the immune system by preventing further disease progression
muscle relaxants
relieve muscle spasms, pain, and stiffness
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammation in treatment of musculoskeletal conditions, such as sprains and strains, and inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, bursitis, gout, and tendinitis
Fractures are classified by
the way in which the bone breaks and whether or not the skin is pierced with a bony fragment
pathologic fracture
a fracture caused by a disease process such as osteoporosis or bone cancer
Specific methods of treatment for a fracture depends upon:
- type of fracture sustained
- location
- related injuries
closed fracture
bone is broken but no open wound in skin
open fracture
bone breaks through skin
complicated fracture
extensive soft tissue injury, such as a broken rib piercing the lung above
comminuted fracture
bone is crushed into several pieces
impacted fracture
broken ends of a bone are forced into one another
incomplete fracture
line of fracture does not include the whole bone
greenstick fracture
bone is broken only on one side; commonly occurs in children because their growing bones are soft
Colles fracture
distal radius is broken by falling onto an outstretched hand
Rheumatoid arthritis
chronic, systemic inflammatory disease that primarily attacks peripheral joints and surrounding muscles, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels

chronic, systemic inflammatory disease affecting the synovial membranes of multiple joints, eventually resulting in crippling deformities and immobility

spontaneous remissions and unpredictable exacerbations mark the course of this potentially crippling autoimmune disease
autoimmune reaction in rheumatoid arthritis
reaction is against one's own joint tissues, especially synovial fluid

as RA develops, there is congestion and edema of the synovial membrane and joint causing formation of a thick layer of granulation tissue which invades cartilage, destroying the joint and bone

eventually a fibrous immobility of joints (ankylosis) occurs, causing immobility and visible deformities
prognosis for RA
usually requires lifelong treatment and occasionally surgery

prognosis worsens with development of nodules, vasculitis, and the presence of rheumatoid factor (substance detected in blood test of patients with RA)
treatment for RA
physical therapy, heat applications, drugs such as aspirin/NSAIDs, and corticosteroids to reduce pain and inflammation

other therapeutic drugs include disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) such as gold salts
BK
below the knee
CT
computed tomography
CTS
carpal tunnel syndrome
DMARDs
disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs
Fx
fracture
HNP
herniated nucleus pulposus
(herniated disc)
IM
intramuscular
MG
myasthenia gravis
ORTH, Ortho
orthopedics
RA
rheumatoid arthritis
THR
total hip replacement
sacroiliac
pertaining to the sacrum and ilium
flexion
bending motion of a limb
anteroposterior
directional term indicating from the front to the back
bilateral
pertaining to two sides
hypertrophic
pertaining to an increase in the size of an organ or structure
lumbosacral
pertaining to the lumbar vertebra and the sacrum
lateral
pertaining to one side
extension
extending motion of a limb
intervertebral
pertaining to between vertebrae
lipping
formation of a liplike structure, as at the articular end of a bone in osteoarthritis
cataract
opacity of the lens of the eye, usually occurring as a result of aging, trauma, metabolic disease, or the adverse effect of certain medications or chemicals

degenerative disease due mainly to the aging process in which the lens of the eye becomes progressively cloudy, causing decreased vision
cornea transplantation
procedure in which a damaged cornea is replaced by the cornea from the eye of a human cadaver; also known as keratoplasty
glaucoma
eye disease in which increased eyeball pressure is caused by failure of aqueous humor to drain properly, and it accumulates in the anterior chamber of the eye, causing elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and gradual loss of sight

IOP leads to degeneration and atrophy of the retina and optic nerve
ocular
pertaining to the eye or sense of sight
ocul
eye
radial keratotomy
surgery to correct myopia, or nearsightedness, by changing the shape of the cornea (transparent part of the eye that covers the iris and pupil)
kerat/o
horny tissue, hard; cornea
sleep apnea
condition in which breathing stops for more than ten seconds during sleep
-pnea
breathing
ophthalmology
medical specialty associated with the eyes and the diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders
otolaryngology
medical specialty associated with the ears (and throat, and usually nose)
ophthalmologist
medical specialist in ophthalmology

prescribes corrective lenses, performs corrective eye surgeries
optometrist and optician
two other health care practitioners who specialize in providing corrective lenses

they are not medical doctors, but are licensed to examine and test the eyes and treat visual defects by prescribing corrective lenses

opticians also specialize in filling prescriptions for corrective lenses
oldest medical specialty in the U.S.
otolaryngology
Fifty years ago, otolaryngology was practiced
along with ophthalmology

consisted mainly of removing tonsils and adenoids, and irrigating sinuses and ear canals
irrigating
cleansing a canal by flushing it with water or other fluids
otolaryngology today
is greatly expanded to include medical and surgical management of patients with disorders of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck

thus specialists in this practice are commonly called ENT physicians or otolaryngologists
otolaryngologists treat
disorders related to the sinuses, including allergies and disorders of the sense of smell

diagnostic techniques used to detect causes of hoarseness, hearing and breathing difficulty, swelling around the head or neck

also treat sleep apnea by means including, but not limited to, surgery
scler/o
sclera
choroid/o
choroid
retin/o
retina
irid/o
iris
corne/o
cornea
blephar/o
eyelid
cor/o
pupil
core/o
pupil
pupill/o
pupil
phac/o
lens
conjunctiv/o
conjunctiva
ot/o
ear
staped/o
stapes
cochle/o
cochlea
myring/o
tympanic membrane
tympan/o
tympanic membrane
blepharospasm
involuntary contraction of the eyelid
-spasm
involuntary contraction, twitching
choroidopathy
disease of the choroid (layer between the retina and sclera)
conjunctivitis
inflammation of the conjunctiva that can be caused by bacteria, allergy, irritation, or a foreign body; also called pinkeye
corneitis
inflammation of the cornea; also called keratitis
anisocoria
inequality of pupil size
coreometer
instrument for measuring the pupil
pupillary
pertaining to the pupil
dacry/o
tear; lacrimal apparatus (duct, sac, or gland)
dacryorrhea
excessive secretion of tears
aniso
unequal, dissimilar
-rrhea
discharge, flow
lacrim/o
tear; lacrimal apparatus (duct, sac, or gland)
lacrimation
secretion and discharge of tears
dipl/o
double
diplopia
two images of an object seen at the same time; also called double vision
-opia
vision
keratoplasty
surgical repair of the cornea; also called corneal transplant
intraocular
pertaining to within the eyeball
intra-
in, within
ophthalm/o
eye
ophthalmoscope
instrument for examining the eye
opt/o
eye, vision
optic
pertaining to the eye or vision
retinopathy
disease of the retina
acous/o
hearing
acoustic
pertaining to hearing
audi/o
hearing
audiometer
instrument for measuring levels of hearing
audit/o
hearing
auditory
pertaining to sense of hearing
tympanoplasty
surgical repair of the tympanic membrane (eardrum)
otorrhea
discharge from the ear
salpingopharyngeal
pertaining to the Eustachian tube and pharynx
salping/o
tube [usually fallopian or eustachian (auditory) tubes]
-acusis
hearing
anacusis
without hearing, total deafness
-cusis
hearing
presbycusis
hearing loss associated with old age
presby
old age
amblyopia
reduction or dimness of vision usually in one eye with no apparent pathological condition; also called lazy eye
heteropsia
inequality of vision in the two eyes
blepharoptosis
prolapse, downward displacement or drooping of the upper eyelid
exo-
outside, outward
hyperopia
excess (farsighted) vision
hyper-
excessive, above normal
ophthalmoplegia; ophthalmoparalysis
paralysis of the eye
pupilloscopy
examination of the pupil
keratomalacia
softening of the cornea
keratometer
instrument for measuring the cornea
scleritis
inflammation of the sclera
scleromalacia
softening of the sclera
iridoplegia; iridoparalysis
paralysis of the sphincter of the iris
iridocele
herniation of the iris
retinitis
inflammation of the retina
blepharoplegia
paralysis of the eyelid
blepharoplasty
surgical repair of the eyelid
ambly
dull, dim
heter-
different
-tropia
turning
otopyorrhea
flow of pus from the ear
myringotome
instrument for cutting the tympanic membrane
salpingitis
inflammation of the eustachian tube
achromatopsia
congenital deficiency in color perception that is more common in men; also called color blindness
astigmatism
refractive disorder in which excessive curvature of the cornea or lens causes light to be scattered over the retina, rather than focused on a single point, resulting in a distorted image
diabetic retinopathy
retinal damage marked by aneurysmal dilation and bleeding of blood vessels or the formation of new blood vessels causing visual changes in diabetic patients
hordeolum
small, purulent, inflammatory infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid; also called a sty
macular degeneration
breakdown of the tissues in the macula, resulting in loss of central vision
photophobia
unusual intolerance and sensitivity to light that occurs in such disorders as meningitis, eye inflammation, measles, and rubella
retinal detachment
separation of the retina from the choroid, which disrupts vision and results in blindness if not repaired
chromat
color
-opsia
vision
stigmat
point, mark
phot/o
light
-phobia
fear
strabismus
muscular eye disorder in which the eyes turn from the normal position so that they deviate in different directions
esotropia
strabismus in which there is deviation of the visual axis of one eye toward that of the other eye, resulting in diplopia; also called cross-eye or convergent strabismus
eso-
inward
exotropia
strabismus in which there is deviation of the visual axis of one eye away from that of the other, resulting in diplopia; also called wall-eye or divergent strabismus

abnormal turning outward of one or both eyes
anacusis hearing loss
loss of the sense or perception of sound; total deafness (complete hearing loss)
conductive hearing loss
results from any condition that prevents sound waves from being transmitted to the auditory receptors
presbycusis hearing loss
impairment of hearing that results from the aging process
sensorineural hearing loss
inability of nerve stimuli to be delivered to the brain from the inner ear due to damage to the auditory (acoustic) nerve or cochlea; also called nerve deafness
Meniere disease
rare disorder characterized by progressive deafness, vertigo, and tinnitus, possibly due to swelling of membranous structures within the labyrinth
otitis media (OM)
inflammation of the middle ear, which is commonly the result of an upper respiratory infection (URI) and may be treated with tympanostomy tube insertion
otosclerosis
progressive deafness due to ossification in the bony labyrinth of the inner ear
tinnitus
ringing or tinkling noise heard constantly or intermittently in one or both ears, even in a quiet environment, that usually results from damage to inner ear structures associated with hearing
vertigo
sensation of moving around in space or a feeling of spinning dizziness that usually results from inner ear structure damage associated with balance and equilibrium
tonometry
screening test to detect glaucoma that measures intraocular pressure and to determine if it's elevated
ton/o
tension
visual acuity test
standard eye examination to determine the smallest letters a person can read on a Snellen chart, or E chart, at a distance of 20 feet
audiometry
test that measures hearing acuity at various sound frequencies
otoscopy
visual examination of the external auditory canal and the tympanic membrane using an otoscope
tuning fork test
hearing tests that use a tuning fork (instrument that produces a constant pitch when struck) that is struck then placed against or near the bones on the side of the head to assess nerve and bone conduction of sound
Rinne tuning fork test
evaluates bone conduction of sound in one ear at a time
Weber
evaluates bone conduction of sound in both ears at the same time
cataract surgery
excision of a lens affected by a cataract
phacoemulsification
excision of the lens by ultrasonic vibrations that break the lens into tiny particles, which are suctioned out of the eye; also called small incision cataract surgery (SICS)
iridectomy
excision of a portion of the iris used to relieve intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma
laser iridotomy
laser surgery that creates an opening on the rim of the iris to allow aqueous humor to flow between the anterior and posterior chambers to relieve IOP that occurs as a result of glaucoma and is replacing iridectomy because it is a safer procedure
laser photocoagulation
use of a laser beam to seal leaking or hemorrhaging retinal blood vessels used in treatment of diabetic retinopathy
cochlear implant
electronic transmitter surgically implanted into the cochlea of a deaf person to restore hearing
myringoplasty
surgical repair of the tympanic membrane (perforated eardrum) with a tissue graft to correct hearing loss; also called tympanoplasty
myringotomy
incision of the tympanic membrane to relieve pressure and drain fluid from the middle ear or to insert tympanostomy tubes in the eardrum via surgery
antiglaucoma drugs
reduce intraocular pressure by lowering the amount of aqueous humor in the eyeball, reducing its production, or increasing its outflow
miotics
cause the pupil to constrict
mydriatics
cause the pupil to dilate and prepare the eye for an internal examination
vertigo and motion sickness drugs
decrease sensitivity of the inner ear to motion and prevent nerve impulses from the inner ear from reaching the vomiting center of the brain
wax emulsifiers
loosen and help remove impacted cerumen (ear wax)
Two forms of glaucoma
- open-angle
- closed-angle
Open-angle glaucoma
the most common form

results from degenerative changes that cause congestion and reduce flow of aqueous humor through the canal of Schlemm

this type of glaucoma is painless, but destroys peripheral vision, causing tunnel vision
Closed-angle glaucoma
is a medical emergency

caused by an anatomically narrow angle between the iris and the cornea, which prevents outflow of aqueous humor from the eye into the lymphatic system, causing a sudden increase in IOP

symptoms include sever pain, blurred vision, and photophobia
Glaucoma eventually leads to
vision loss and, commonly, blindness
Treatment for glaucoma includes:
eyedrops (miotics) that cause the pupils to constrict, permitting aqueous humor to escape from the eye, thereby relieving pressure

if miotics are ineffective, surgery may be necessary
Tympanostomy tubes
a.k.a. ear tubes or pressure-equalizing tubes (PE tubes)

plastic cylinders surgically inserted into the eardrum to drain fluid and equalized pressure between the middle and outer ear

most commonly used in children who have had recurrent ear infections that do not respond to antibiotics, or when fluid remains behind the eardrum

tube decreases feeling of pressure in the ears, reduces pain, and allows air to enter the middle ear and fluid to flow out of the middle ear and into the ear canal
Tympanostomy insertion
outpatient

performed by otolaryngologist while child is under general anesthesia
ARMD
age-related macular degeneration
Ast
astigmatism
ENT
ear, nose and throat
EOM
extraocular movement
IOP
intraocular pressure
Myop
myopia
O.D.
Doctor of Optometry
OD
right eye
OM
otitis media
OS
left eye
OU
both eyes
ST
esotropia
mucoserous
composed of mucus and serum
cholesteatoma
cystlike sac filled with cholesterol and epithelial cells