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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Name three anatomical landmarks that could be used to adjust a walker to the appropriate height.

crease of the wrist
ulnar styloid process
greater trochanter

When guarding a patient who had a right total hip replacement, which side should the therapist stand on?
The patient's right side
A patient who had surgery done to their left knee requires the use of a cane. Which hand should they hold the cane in?
The right hand
Which gait pattern is appropriate for someone who is NWB on their left lower extremity?
The three point

True or False ; the appropriate sequence for walking with a cane using the modified four point pattern is:
involved leg
uninvolved leg


A patient is NWB on their right lower extremity. Name two appropriate assistive devices they may use.

standard walker
Of all the assistice devices, the walker offers the most stability. True or False
False; the parallel bars do
When guarding a patient going upstairs, should the therapist stand in front or behind the patient?
From behind ( of course using a gait belt)
Name two assistive devices that are appropriate to use when instructing the four point gait pattern.
two crutches
two canes
recipricol walker
True or False ; When a person is WBAT, a walker, crutches and/or cane are all appropriate assistive devices to instruct with.
False, when using a cane there must be no weight bearing restrictions
List 3 steps you should take to insure patient safety during gait training
non-skid shoes (for patient and PTA)
gait belt
lock wheelchair brakes
get help if needed
If a chart states the patient requires Min A x1 for ambulation, how much work is the patient doing?
approximately 75%
Why does there need to be a 2-3 finger width space between the axilla and the top of axillary crutches?
To avoid compression of the neurovascular bundle located in the axilla

What is missing from this documentation about gait?
Patient ambulated with Min A.

How many assist?
What type of surface?
How do you calculate Maximum HR?
Just a reminder to go back and review!! :) From Kim
True or False: Manual muscle testing only assesses concentric kinds of contractions.
True or False: only muscles that cross two joints can exhibit active insufficiency.
True or False: placing a joint in a position that creates passive insufficiency should be avoided when taking goniometric measurements on a patient.
What plane divides the body into front and back sections?
True or False: the sagittal plane divides the body into upper and lower segments.
False, left and right segments
A patient can move a joint through the full ROM against gravity but cannot take resistance. What MMT grade would you assign to the tested muscle?
Fair or 3
True or False: the axis of a joint lies parallel to the plane of motion.
False, perpendicular
True or False: passive motion is used to assess an end feel.
Name the three non-pathological end feels.
Soft, Firm and Hard
A PT documents that a patient has an empty end feel. What does this mean?
No resistance to joint motion because the ligamenteous or capsular structures have been severely damaged.
True or False: The arm of the goniometer that is part of the body is called the stationary arm.
True or False: the moving arm is always lined up to the moving segment.
True or False: movements in the horizontal plane always occur around a vertical axis.
What 2 muscles in the upper extremity need to be assessed prior to gait training using crutches with a NWB status.
Triceps and Latissimus Dorsi
Name 2 reasons why assistive devices are used in patient care.
Improve balance by increasing the base of support, and unweighting a joint,
True or False: using a railing is better then using two crutches to ascend or descend stairs.
True or False: when a two joint muscle is actively insufficient, its antagonist (opposite muscle) undergoes passive insufficiency.
True or False: the elbows are flexed in the anatomical position.
False, extended
What determines the degrees of freedom or movement of a joint?
The classification of joint (ball and socket as compared to a hinge) See page 5 in Musculoskeletal Assement
A joint can move in two planes. How many degrees of movement or freedom does it have?
True or False: Frontal plane movement ocurrs around a sagittal axis.
True, see Table 1-2 in Musculoskeletal Assessement on page 7
True or False: sagittal motion of the shoulder includes two movements, abduction and adduction.
False, flexion and extension. Appreciate the fact that when doing goniometry, each plane of motion that a joint possesses regards that two separate motions need to measured. In this case flexion and extension
True or False: when soft tissue approximate against one another, a firm end results.
False, soft
What kinds of movements does goniometry measure?
True or False: the frontal plane is also called the coronal plane.
What 3 kinds of motion can be assessed with goniometry?
Active, passive, and Active Assistive
When performing a MMT on a patient what position do you start the test in?
Against gravity, 3 or Fair
You are performing a MMT on patient. The patient is unable to move the joint against gravity. What should you do next?
Place the patient in a gravity eliminated position.
A PTA is doing a MMT. The patient cannot move against gravity so the patient's extremity is placed in a gravity eliminated position. What grade should be assigned to the patient when the clinician can feel a muscle contraction but there is no joint movement.
Trace or 1
True or False: when performing any test greater than a 3 or Fair, you must palpate the muscle you are testing.
False, less than 3 or fair
True or False: MMT can be used to measure the endurance a muscle possesses.
False, MMT is used to asses strength
There are only two instances where we lead with the uninvolved side when using an assistive device. Can you name them?
Ascending stairs and walking backwards
True or False: a modified three point gait pattern can be used on a patient who has a PWB status.
What is the recommended amount of elbow flexion that a patient should have when using an assistive device?
20-25 degrees
What is the recommended distance that the top of the cuff on a pair of forearm crutches is from the elbow?
1-1.5 inches
When ascending stairs what extremity goes up first?
The uninvolved side should go up first
When descending stairs what goes down first, the involved leg or the crutch?
The crutch should lead, then the involved leg
True or False the clinician should stand behind the patient when guarding a patient who is descending stairs.
False, the clinician should be in front of the patient when guarding a patient descending stairs.
What muscles need to be strong in the upper extremities to use axillary crutches for a NWB status?
Shoulder depressors, shoulder extensors and flexors, elbow extensors, finger flexors
Name the order of assistive devices from most stable to least stable.
Parallel bars, standard walker, rolling walker, bilateral crutches, single crutches, bilateral canes, hemi-cane, wide based canes, short base canes and finally straight cane
When using a tilt table what 2 vital signs should be monitored closely?
Pulse and BP
True or False: When using a tilt table it is necessary to elevate the table to 90 degrees to assist the person to adapt to an upright position.
False, 70-80 degrees is sufficient.
When fitting a patient for a cane, the tip of the cane should be how many inches lateral and anterior the the toe fo the shoe?
2 inches lateral and 4-6 inches anterior
How many inches should the parallel bars be from the patient's hip?
2-4 inches
Describe what PWB means.
Only a percentage of the patient's body weight can be placed through the involved extremity.
True or False: it is recommended that a patient pivot toward their involved extremity when turning.
False, they should pivot on the uninvolved side.
What are the indications for using a 4 point gait?
Patients with balance problems and who are de-conditioned
Describe a 2 point gait.
It requires the use of bilateral (2) ambulation aids. The pattern uses a simultaneous, reciprocal forward placement of the amb aid and the patient's opposite LE.