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71 Cards in this Set

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collagen
Most abundant protein in connective tissue, most abundant in the body
connective tissue
blood, cartilege, and bones
Wolff's law
Form follows Function.

bone in a healthy person or animal will adapt to the loads it is placed under. If loading on a particular bone increases, the bone will remodel itself over time to become stronger to resist that sort of loading. The converse is true as well: if the loading on a bone decreases, the bone will become weaker due to turnover as it is less metabolically costly to maintain and there is no stimulus for continued remodeling that is required to maintain bone mass.
None
amenorrhea
absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age
menopause
permanent physiological cessation of menstrual cycles. 45-50, can be 5 either way (early or late menopause), beyond that considered not normal.
articulation
a joint
None
ligaments
connect bone to bone
Names of muscle plexes
Cervical, brahial, lumbar, sacral
cervical plexus
C1-C4 innervate head, neck, upper chest, shoulders
brachial plexus
C5-T1 innervate from sholder to fingertips
lumbar plexus
L1-L4 innervate abdomen, groin, genatalia, antero-lateral thigh
sacral plexus
L4-S4 large muscles of posterior thigh and frm legs through toetips.
nerve impulses
messages from CNS or from receptors
types of receptors
pain, temperature, pressure, changes in body position
None
sensory nerve cells
carry messages from receptors to brain
motor nerve cells
carry messages from the CNS
muscles burning
accompanies muscle fatigue, warng of a muscle or temdon injury via overexertion, and a sign to lower the intensity level
5 functions of skeletal system
protect vital organs, support the body, framework for muscle attachment, marrow produces red and some white blood cells and platelets , store minerals
4 shapes of bones
long, short, flat, irregular
Bone concern with menopause/amenorhhea
substantial bone mineral loss.
axial skeleton
head, vertebral columnm, thorax
connective tissue
blood, cartilege, and bones
sedentary
remaining fixed in a certain place
axis of rotation
imaginary line perpendicular to the plane of movement about which a joint rotates.
flexion
Like "flexing your bicep" .. reducing the bone angle

Sagittal plane (up/down)decrease the angle between the anterior surfaces of the bones (move arm out in front of you) Though knees and toes are backwards, toward the posterior
None
extension
straightening out

increase the angle between the anteror surface of the bones, push your arm down to your side.
None
abduction
Frontal plane, in relationship to the midline of the body. Moving away from the midline of the body
adduction
moving toward the midline of the body
anatomical position
where the bone naturaly is
aponeurosis
broad, flat tendon
agonist
muscle that's contracting to do work
antagonist
opposing muscle that's stretching while the other is contracting
synergist
muscles that help with some function
eversion
turning the foot out
None
plantarflexion
inversion
point toes inward
None
Number of muscle plexuses
Names of muscle plexes
Cervical, brahial, lumbar, sacral
cervical plexus
C1-C4 innervate head, neck, upper chest, shoulders
brachial plexus
C5-T1 innervate from sholder to fingertips
lumbar plexus
L1-L4 innervate abdomen, groin, genatalia, antero-lateral thigh
sacral plexus
L4-S4 large muscles of posterior thigh and frm legs through toetips.
nerve impulses
messages from CNS or from receptors
tyopes of receptors
pain, temperature, pressure, changes in body position
sensory nerve cells
carry messages from receptors to brain
motor nerve cells
carry messages from the CNS
muscles burning
accompanies muscle fatigue, warng of a muscle or temdon injury via overexertion, and a sign to lower the intensity level
5 functions of skeletal system
protect vital organs, support the body, framework for muscle attachment, marrow produces red and some white blood cells and platelets , store minerals
4 shapes of bones
long, short, flat, irregular
Bone concern with menopause/amenorhhea
substantial bone mineral loss.
axial skeleton
head, vertebral columnm, thorax
appendicular skeleton
bones of the limbs and the bones than connect them to the axial skeleton
types of joints
fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial, diarthroses
fibrous joint
tightly held by fibruous connective tissue. Skull plates etc.
cartilaginous joints
no cavity, cartilige on both sides of the joint. Not much movement breastbone etc.
synovial joints
joint cavity, limited in movement by shape of the bone and the surrounding tussue. With injury, membrane may secrete excess fluid, causing pain.
miniscus
especially knee, disks in the joint that help it move more
diarthroses
synovial joints that can move many different ways
uniplanar joint
a hinge, moves in one plane. Elbow etc
biplanar joint
move in two planes. Knee and foot etc.
multiplanar joint
move in two planes of motion. Shoulder, hip (ball and socket) thumb (saddle)
two types of synovial joint movement
angular, circular
rotation
spin around, hip etc.
supination
the external rotation of the forearm to put palm to anterior
pronation
rotating palm to posterior
circumduction
flexion, abduction, extension, then adduction
dorsiflexion
top of foot moving toward shin
plantarflexion
sole of foot downward, pointing toes
inversion
moving medial foot
eversion
moving lateral foot
None
opposition
using the thumb in opposition to the fingers.