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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Define osteokinematics.
Movement between bones.
(spin and swing)
Define arthrokinematics.
Movement between joints.
(roll and slide)
What is an Open-kinematic chain. Examples.
Distal segment is free.
(bicep curls, leg extensions, etc.)
What is a Closed-kinematic chain. Examples.
Distal segment is fixed.
(push-ups, squats, etc.)
What are the 4 aspects of a Closed packed position?
1. Maximal joint surface contact.
2. Ligaments under tension.
3. Capsule is taught.
4. Joint is compressed.
Define isometric.
A muscle contraction where there is no change in joint position.
(usually the first thing done in PT)
Hypertension is a contradiction to which of the following?
Isometric, Isotonic, Isokinetic
Isometric.
Define isotonic and the 2 types.
A muscle contraction where the force is constant and the joint angle changes.
Concentric - shortening
Eccentric - lengthening
Which would be preferred for geriatrics, concentric or eccentric contractions?
Eccentric.
Define isokinetic.
A muscle contraction where the joint speed remains constant.
(maintained by a machine)
Define core stabilization.
A series of exercises to stabilize the lumbo-pelvic complex.
What 2 physiological effects make deep friction massage effective.
1. Traumatic hyperemia reduces pain w/ increased blood supply.
2. Adhesion reduction
Name the deep 4 neck flexors.
Longus coli, Longus capitis, SCM, Scalenes
Name the 3 cervical extensors.
Rectus capitis, Semispinalis capitis, Semispinalis cervicis
How do you test the cervical extensors?
Patient prone, extend and rotate head ipsilaterally, patient resists as you push straight down.
Are plyometrics typically used at the beginning or end of treatment?
The end. It improves power and speed by bounding after eccentric contraction.
Are type I muscle fibers red or white?
I = Red slow twitch, i.e postural muscles
II = White fast twitch, i.e. extremity muscles
True or False
Most of the gains in the first 8-10 weeks are from muscle bulk gain.
False
Gains are coordination only, resulting in 20% gain in strength.
At what age do we peak in muscle strength?
25 y/o
lose approx 1%/year
What is the grade scale of joint mobilization.
Grades 1 - 4
Manipulation would be a grade 5.
How do you perform the Hold-Relax stretch.
Contract the antagonist.
(Reciprocal inhibition)
Which muscle would you contract in a Contract-relax stretch.
Contract the agonist.
(the one you want to stretch)
What are the primary goals of Phase I of rehab?
Reduce pain
Maintain - (prevent atrophy, improve/maintain ROM)
Why do you not want to push the passive ROM in Phase I of rehab into the painful range?
It would increase the inflammatory response.
What are the goals of Phase II of rehab?
1. Pain down 50%.
2. Small increase in ROM.
3. Resist manual mm test with little pain.
What phase can active assisted exercises be introduced?
Phase II
(patients assist themselves)
What phase would PNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) be introduced?
Phase II
How much mobility can you expect to gain from Isometric exercises?
20 deg (10 deg each direction)
What does PNF stand for?
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation
What does PRE stand for?
Progressive Resistive Exercise
Which is a more powerful contraction, Concentric or Eccentric?
Eccentric
What is the set and rep protocol for Delarme?
Set 1: 50% @ 10 reps
Set 2: 75% @ 10 reps
Set 3: 100% @ 10 reps
What is the set and rep protocol for Oxford?
Set 1: 100% @ 10 reps
Set 2: 75% @ 10 reps
Set 3: 50% @ 10 reps
During a trunk flexion test, what arm position would dictate what grades.
Grade 5 - hands behind neck
Grade 4 - arms across chest
Grade 3 - arms at hips
How is the Straight leg raise performed and why would a patient fail?
Patient supine, flatten lower back, doc hand under low back, doc lifts legs to 90 deg, pat lowers slowly.
If core is weak, the iliopsoas will overcome and the low back will rise.
What are the sets and reps recommended for Isometric exercises?
3 sets of 5 secs @ 2/3 strength (Zilke recommmends)
or
10 sec at 10 reps per hour (poor compliance)
What are the 2 keys to core stabilization?
1. Normal mm length b/t agonist and antagonist. (i.e. psoas and hamstrings)
2. Normal force relationship b/t agonist and antagonist.
Why is the Transverse Abdominus mm important in core stabilization?
It "feeds forward" (contracts first before the limbs can do their work).
Why is the Transversal Spinalis mm important to core stabilization?
It has 2-6 times more spindles than other groups (key to proprioception).
What are the 3 categories of stretching? Describe each.
1. Ballistic - bounding, uncontrolled.
2. Static - slow, effective range at 15-30 sec with 3-4 reps.
3. PNF - pat slightly contracts, (more effective than other 2).
What are the 3 categories of PNF stretching?
1. Contract/Relax
2. Hold/Relax
3. Slow reversal hold
Which category of stretching has studies shown to be more effective, Ballistic, Static, or PNF?
PNF
How is Slow Reversal Hold stretching performed?
Stretch into extension.
Combination of Contract/Relax and Hold/Relax.
Contract the biceps (agonist) first then contract the triceps (antagonist).
Which mechanoreceptors detect mm length and speed?
Spindles
Which mechanoreceptors detect tension?
GTO
What is the goal of Phase III of rehab?
Full, pain-free ROM.