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### 78 Cards in this Set

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 Theory of electrical modalities 1) charged particles move from an area of high concentraction to areas of lower concentration 2) as an electrical force is applied to particles, they can be propelled from higher energy states to lower ------> Action potential Unit of measure for CURRENT amps, mA, or uA How many coulumbs in 1 amp? 1 coulumb electromotive force needed to produce a flow of electrons from high potential to low potential? volt materials that FACILITATE movement of electrons conductors materials that RESIST movement of electrons insulators opposition of electron flow in a conductor is called? resistance =electrical impedence Unit of measure for resistance? ohm Ohm's Law -current in an electrical circuit is DIRECTLY proportional to VOLTAGE and INVERSELY proportional to RESISTANCE Equation for current in Ohm's Law current = volt/resistance electrical power (watts) = ? voltage X amps PT modalities fall within what 4 Hz ranges? 1) HIGH 100,000-3,000,000 Hz 2) MEDIUM 2,000-10,000 Hz 3) LOW 1-2,000 Hz 4) ULTRA - LOW <1 Hz Which modalities fall into the HIGH frequency range? 1) diathermy 2) IR 3) UV 4) US Which modalities fall into the MEDIUM frequency range? 1) interferential 2) Russion stim Which modalities fall into the LOW frequency range? 1) Biphasic 2) TENS 3) HVPC 4) LVPC 5) Microcurrent Which modalities fall into the ULTRA-LOW frequency range? 1) microcurrent What are the 3 types of current that electrotherapeutic modalities can generate? 1) AC 2) DC 3) Pulsed AKA for AC current? biphasic AKA for DC current? monophasic Modalities that generate an AC current (biphasic)? 1) interferential 2) microcurrent 3) TENS Modalities that generate a DC current (monophasic)? 1) LVG 2) HVPC 3) LVPC 4) Microcurrent Modalities that generate a Pulsed current? 1) HVPC 2) LVPC 3) Microcurrent 4) TENS -unidirectional flow of electrons -can be set at + or - monophasic -poles are switched -flow of electrons is reversed over and over biphasic -can be mono or biphasic -interuption of current or flow pulsed What are the 3 types of waveforms? 1) sinusoidal "arch-like" 2) rectangular 3) triangular Intensity of current? amplitude -individual waveform -may comprise of 1 or 2 phases -portion which rises above or goes below the baseline pulse gaps in a pulsed current are called? interpulse interval length of time that current is flowing? pulse duration period of time from start of one pulse to the beginning of the next? pulse period amount of electricity being delivered to the patient during each pulse? pulse charge type of current where pulse and phase charge are equal? monophasic asymmetric biphasic waveform? faradic wave Muscular and nervous tissue respond to the impulses depending upon what 3 things? 1) Hz 2) length of time b/t pulses 3) modulation any change in duration or magnitude of a pulse? modulation amplitude of wave stays constant for a long period of time? continuous modulation What is used with monophasic current to produce a build up of ions? continuous modulation What causes tissue hardening? at (+) pole, negative ions produce an ACID rxn What causes tissue softening? at (-) pole, an ALKALINE rxn Tissue hardening and softening by ions is termed? medical galvanism -current flows for some time then turned off for sometime -used to re-educate or strengthen muscles and improve ROM interrupted modulation pulsed current for a short duration followed by interuption for a short duration usually milliseconds? burst modulation -amplitude of wave is increased then leveled off then decreased gradually -time usually thirds ramped/surged modulation -interrupted modulation using 2 channels -alternating contraction flextion/extension alternating/recirocating/switch rate modulation + pole is called? anode (-) pole is called? cathode negatively charged ions attracted to anode? anions positively charged ions attracted to cathode? cations Coulomb's Law -unlike charges attract, while like charges repel What are the 2 types of electrical circuits? 1) series circuit 2) parallel circuit -only 1 path for the ions to flow from one electrode to the other series circuit -more than one pathway is provided for current flow parallel circuit Which part of a circuit has a large amount of electrons? cathode Current will seek out the path of lease resistance. Kirchoff's Principle Which circuit is created when you put electrods on the skin? series circuit Circuit where current travels the path of least resistance? parallel circuit Tissue conductivity is relative to what? water content *skin = high imedance *nerves = low impedance, but myelin is fat therefore high impedance Conduction of muscles muscles conduct 4X better longitudinally than transversely Conductivity relative to resistance? High resistance = poor conductivity Physiological effects of electrical current? 1) create ms contraction 2) stimulate sensory nerves to decrease pain 3) creates polar effects in tissues to stimulate or alter healing 4) create electrical field to drive (+) ions into skin electrical current that creates electrical field to drive (+) ions into skin is called? ionophoresis What allows the cell membrane to form potential differences b/t inside and outside the cell? Na/K pumps What creates a resting membrane potential? Na pumped OUT K pumped IN impulse required potential to be reduced below threshold level action potential What is needed for an action potential to occur? -impulse needs to be STRONG enough and LONG enough for ions to be pushed thru MB exceeding pump capacity neutralizing cell membrane potential depolarization membrane incapable of depolarization. pumps are actively trying to re-establish resting membrane potential absolute refractory period -about 0.5 usec another action potential can be produced if stimulus is strong enough relative refractory period membrane becomes partially insensitive due to repeated stimulation before full restoration of membrane resting potential Wedensky inhibition contraction magnitude is increased when frequency of depolarization increases. summatino of contraction constant non-varying muscle contraction is called? tetany Hz for tetany? 20-85 Hz Muscle contraction occurs under the _______. cathode Increasing the intensity of a stimulus will result in what? deeper penetration When electrodes are placed further apart, how does the current travel? deeper Pulsed/interrupted modulation should be done at a ratio of _____. 1:3 Which waveform may not be a good idea due to muscle accommodation? ramped waveform