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80 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the functional unit of the nervous system?
neuron
Describe the pathways of three different messaging neurons.
efferent: CNS to PNS
interneuron: neuron to neuron
afferent: PNS to CNS
What are glia
they are non-neuronal cells that provide services for the neurons.
List the 4 regions of the nervous system
PNS, spinal region, brainstem and cerebellar region, cerebral region
What structures make up the brainstem
medulla, pons, midbrain
Where is the diencepahlon and where is it located?
it is in the center of the cerebrum. thalmus, hypothalmus, epithalmus, and subthalmus
Which 2 arteries supply the brain
internal carotid and the vertebral
What is the white matter composed of and why is it white?
composed of axons that convey information away from the cell body. they appear white because of the high fat content in the myelin
Bundles of myelinated axons that travel together in the CNS are called what?
tracts, fasciululi, column, peduncle, or capsule
What is grey matter composed of?
neuron cell bodies
What is the DRG?
dorsal root ganglion. an enlargement of the dorsal root contains cell bodies of sensory
White matter is divided into three areas-list them.
anterior, lateral, posterior funiculi
What are the 2 main functions of the spinal cord?
to convey information between the neurons connected to peripheral structures and the brain and process information
How many cranial nerves attach to the pons?
4: 5th-8th
Why are the colliculi important?
auditory and visual stimuli
How many cranial nerves are there?
12
Which cranial nerves are purely sensory?
1,2,8
Which cranial nerves are primarily motor?
3,4,6,11,12
What cranial nerves are mixed?
5,7,9,10
What is the function of the cerebellum?
coordinate movement
What are the structures of the diencephalon?
thalmus, hypothalmus, subthalmus, epithalmus
What is the function of the thalmus?
relay information to the cerebral cortex, process emotional and some memory information, integrate different types of sensation (touch and visual information), regulate consciousness arousal and attention.
What is the function of the hypothalmus?
maintains body temp., metabolic rate, and chemical composition of tissues and fluids within an optimal functional range
What is the function of the subthalmus?
part of a neural circuit controlling movement
What is the function of the epithalmus?
it is the pineal gland, which influences the secretion of other endocrine glands
List the 6 lobes of the cerebrum.
frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal, insula, limbic
What are the commissures, and what is their function?
Commissures are bundles of axons that convey information between the cortices of the left and right cerebral hemispheres
What does the cerebral cortex process?
sensory, motor, and memory information and is the site for reasoning, language, nonverbal communication, intelligence, and personality.
What makes up the basal ganglia?
caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus, subthalmus, and substansia nigra
What makes up the limbic system?
parts of the thalmus, hypothalmus, most prominent are the amygdala, and hippocampus
What does the basal ganglia do?
helps control movement
What is the function of the limbic system?
emotions and processing some types of memory
List the 4 ventricles
2 lateral ventricles, third and 4th ventricles
What structures produce CSF?
Choroid plexus
Why do we have dural sinuses?
They return CSF and venous blood to the jugular veins
What are the 3 different categories of lesions?
1. focal
2. multifocal
3. diffuse
What is a focal lesion?
a lesion limited to a single location
What is a multifocal lesion?
limited to several, nonsymmetrical locations
What is a diffuse lesion?
affecting bilaterally symmetrical structures but does not cross the midline as a single lesion
speed of acute onset
indicating minutes or hours to maximal signs and symptoms
speed of subacute onset
progressing to maximal signs and symptoms over a few days
speed of chronic onset
gradual worsening of signs and symptoms continuing for weeks or years
What is neuroscience
the quest to understand the nervous system
What is molecular neuroscience
Chemistry and physics involved in neural function
What is cellular neuroscience
cell types and individual functions
What is behavioral neuroscience
interaction among systems that influence behavior
What is cognitive neuroscience
Thinking, learning and memory and role in thinking, planning and performing motor skills
What does a neuron consist of?
nerve cell body, dendrites and a cell body
What are the 4 common types of glia cells
Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, epyndymal
What is the predominant glial cell
astrocytes
what type of cell is the majority of tumor mass?
astrocyte
What does the somatosensory system do?
conveys information from the skin and musculoskeletal system to the brain
What does the autonomic system do?
provides bidirectional communication between the brain and smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and gland cells
What does the somatic motor system do?
transmit information from the brain to the skeletal muscles
what are the 4 regions of the nervous system?
1. peripheral
2. spinal region
3. brain stem and cerebellar regions
4. cerebral region
What is SAME DAVE?
sensory afferent, motor efferent
dorsal afferent, ventral efferent
What is a ganglion?
it is a cluster of cell bodies in the PNS
What 3 things is the brain protected by?
1. Skull
2. Duramater
3. CSF
Can the CNS repair itself?
it has very little potential to repair itself
What is the medulla part of and what are its important features/components?
Part of the brainstem. continuous with the spinal cord. contains roots of 4 cranial nerves. contains the pyramidal decussation
How many cranial nerves attach to the pons
4
What are the important features of the midbrain?
Peduncles- made of fibers descending from the cortex
Major function of cerebellum
coordinate movements
What is the function of the thalamus
1. relay information to the cortex
2. Process emotion and memory
3. Integrate different types of sensation
4. regulate consciousness, arousal, and attention
What is the function of the hypothalamus
1. maintains body temp
2. metabolic rate
3. chemical composition of tissues and fluids
4. regulates eating, growth, and function of reproductive organs
5. defensive behaviors and expression
Left hemisphere function
Sequential analysis: systematic, logical interpretation of information
Interpretation and production of symbolic information: language, mathematics, abstraction, and reasoning
Memory-stored in language format
Right hemisphere function
Holistic functioning: processing multi-sensory input simultaneously to provide holistic picture of one's environment
Visual spatial skills
Holistic functions such as dancing and gymnastics
memory is stored in auditory, visual, and spatial modalities
Central sulcus
divides frontal and parietal
Parieto-occipital sulcus
divides parietal and occipital
lateral sulcus
divides temporal and frontal
Cingulate sulcus
divided the parahippocampal and limbic
What are commissures
bundles of axons that convey info between left and right cortices
What forms the roof of the lateral and 3rd ventricles
corpus callosum
What forms the walls of the lateral ventricle
caudate
lenticular nucleus
globus pallidus and putamen
corpus striatum
caudate and putamen
Basal ganglia
caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamic nuclei, substantia nigra
What 2 arteries supply the spinal cord with blood?
anterior spinal artery and 2 posterior spinal arteries
What are the 2 biggest branches of arteries in the brain
anterior cerebral and middle cerebral
what 2 arteries supply caudate, globus, putamen, and portions of thalmus, hypothalmus and hippocampus
choroidal arters and striate arteries