• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/180

Click to flip

180 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which of the following is not a term used to describe a bundle of myelinated axons that travel together in the central nervous system?
A. Peduncle
B. Lemniscus
C. Column
D. Ganglia
E. Fasciculus
D. Ganglia
The outer surface of cerebrum is made of white matter while the outer surface of the spinal cord is made of grey matter. T/F
False
Elevates shoulder and turns head describes the function of which cranial nerve?
A. IX Glossopharyngeal
B. X Vagus
C. XI Accessory
D. XII Hypoglossal
C. XI Accessory
Each cerebral hemisphere is divided into how many lobes?
A. 8
B. 6
C. 4
D. 2
E. 0
B. 6
Two pairs of arteries supply blood to the brain. They are:
A. Two internal carotid arteries and two vertebral arteries
B. Two external carotid arteries and two vertebral arteries
C. Two internal carotid arteries and two posterior spinal arteries
D. Two external carotid arteries and two posterior spinal arteries
A. Two internal carotid arteries and two vertebral arteries
Organs are formed in what stage of development?
a- Ectodermic stage
b- Embryonic stage
c- Pre-embryonic stage
d- Fetal stage
b- Embryonic stage
The __________ develops to become the sensory organs, epidermis, and nervous system.
a- Mesoderm
b- Ectoderm
c- Endoderm
d- Dermatome
b- Ectoderm
The Inferior neuropore closes around what day?
a- 18
b- 27
c- 26
d- 30
d- 30
On day 26 of neural tube development the neural tube differentiates into two concentric rings. The outer ring is called the _________ layer, and develops into _________ matter.
a- Mantle, gray
b- Marginal, gray
c- Mantle, white
d- Marginal, white
d- Marginal, white
The somite can differentiate to become the________?
a- Mesoderm
b- Dermatome
c- Scleratome
d- A & B
e- B & C
e- B & C
What is the difference in pattern of progression between an epidural and subdural hematoma?
A. Subdural hematomas and epidural hematomas progresses equally over time because both involve venous bleeding.
B. Subdural hematoma progresses overa few minutes to a few hours because of venous bleeding while an epidural hematoma progresses over a few days to a few months because of arterial bleeding.
C. Subdural hematoma progresses over a few days to a few months because of venous bleeding while an epidural hematoma progresses over a few minutes to a few hours because of arterial bleeding.
D. Subdural hematomas and epidural hematomas progresses equally over time because both involve arterial bleeding.
C. Subdural hematoma progresses over a few days to a few months because of venous bleeding while an epidural hematoma progresses over a few minutes to a few hours because of arterial bleeding.
What is the correct order of the meninges from deep to superficial?
A. Epidural space, dura mater, subdural space, arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space, pia mater.
B. Pia mater, subarachnoid space, arachnoid mater, subdural space, dura mater, epidural space.
C. Epidural space, dura mater, suprarachnoid space, arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space, pia mater.
D. Pia mater, arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space, dura mater, epidural space.
B. Pia mater, subarachnoid space, arachnoid mater, subdural space, dura mater, epidural space.
What is the correct flow of the Cerebral Spinal Fluid?
A. Third ventricle, interventricular foramen, lateral ventricles, cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle, subarachnoid space.
B. Lateral ventricles, cerebral aqueduct, third ventricle, interventricular foramen, fourth ventricle, subarachnoid space.
C. Lateral ventricles, interventricular foramen, third ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle, dural sinus.
D. Lateral ventricles, interventricular foramen, third ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle, subarachnoid space.
D. Lateral ventricles, interventricular foramen, third ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle, subarachnoid space.
What is not a cause of hydrocephalus?
A. Congenital failure of choroid plexus formation
B. Cyst in the fourth ventricle
C. Congenital failure of fourth ventricle to open
D. Blockage of the cerebral aqueduct
E. Overproduction of CSF.
A. Congenital failure of choroid plexus formation
How are strokes classified?
A. By the extent of disability of the mind and/or body.
B. By the size of thrombus or hemorrhage.
C. By their progression, etiology and location.
D. By length of time of symptoms.
C. By their progression, etiology and location.
Strokes of the middle cerebral artery can cause loss of half of the visual field in both eyes. This occurs on contralateral side to the stroke and is known as...



A. Hemipraxia
B. Paraopthalmia
C. Choroideremia
D. Hemianopsia
D. Hemianopsia
T/F...Males are affected by MCA strokes 3 times more frequently than females.
True
Most of the time (80%), MCA strokes are. ..

A. Ischemic
B. Hemorrhagic
C. Thrombotic
D. All of the above
E. A&B only
Ischemic
The most likely candidate for an MCA stroke is...

A. A 58 year old post-menopausal woman of Mediterranean descent with low iron levels.
B. A 90 year old Caucasian male amputee with history of prostate cancer
C. A 78 year old African American male diabetic with heart disease
D. A 66 year old Asian female with hypertension.
C. A 78 year old African American male diabetic with heart disease
Sensory and motor effects from an MCA stroke are observed where on the body

A. Contralateral side
B. Ipsilateral side
C. Cephalic side
D. Caudal side
A. Contralateral side
Which of the following is NOT a region of the nervous system?

A. Peripheral Nervous System
B. Spinal Region
C. Brainstem and Cerebellar Region
D. Cerebral Region
E. None of the above
E. None of the above
Which of the following arteries supply blood to the brain?

A. Two Vertebral Arteries
B. Two Internal Carotid Arteries
C. Both A and B
D. Neither A nor B
C. Both A and B
Which of the following Structures make up the diencephalon?

A. Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Epithalasmus, Subthalamus
B. Medulla, Pons, Midbrain
C. Dorsal Horn, Lateral Horn, Ventral horn
D. Thalamus, Medulla, Hypothalamus
A. Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Epithalasmus, Subthalamus
What is the general flow of CSF?

A. Lateral ventricles, Cerebral aqueduct, 3rd ventricle, Interventricular foramen, 4th ventricle, exits via lateral and medial formina to CNS
B. Lateral ventricles, interventricular foramen, 3rd ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, 4th ventricle, exits via lateral and medial formina to CNS
C.Lateral ventricles, interventricular foramen, 4th ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, 3rd ventricle, exits via lateral and medial formina to CNS
D. 3rd ventricle, interventricular foramen, Lateral ventricles, cerebral aqueduct, 4th ventricle, exits via lateral and medial formina to CNS
B. Lateral ventricles, interventricular foramen, 3rd ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, 4th ventricle, exits via lateral and medial formina to CNS
What is white matter composed of?

A. Dorsal horn, Lateral horn, Ventral horn
B. Dorsal column, lateral Column, Anterior column
C. Both A and B
D. Neither A nor B
B. Dorsal column, lateral Column, Anterior column
The endoderm becomes which of the following during embryonic development?
A. Nervous and Respiratory systems
B. Dermis and Epidermis
C. Gut, Liver, and Pancreas
D. Excretory and Circulatory functions
E. None of the Above
C. Gut, Liver, and Pancreas
Which of the following is ARE types of Spina Bifida?
A. Meningocele
B. Myeloschisis
C. Occulta
D. A and B only
E. All of the Above
E. All of the Above
As the Neural tube develops, which of the following is NOT true about the Dorsal section?
A. Axons grow to innervate with myotome region
B. Also know as association plate
C. Eventually becomes dorsal horn in mature spinal cord
D. Interneurons are created
A. Axons grow to innervate with myotome region
In adulthood, the end of the spinal cord is approximately at which vertebral level?
A. L5-S1
B. L4-L5
C. L1-L2
D. L3-L4
E. None of the Above
C. L1-L2
Which of the following is NOT true concerning Arnold-Chiari malformation?
A. Consists of malformation of the pons, medulla, and inferior cerebellum.
B. Type 1 produces Hydrocephalus
C. Causes the cerebellum to protrude down into the spinal canal.
D. Can be associated with spina bifida
B. Type 1 produces Hydrocephalus
Which dural septa separates the two cerebral hemispheres?
A. Falx Cerebelli
B. Tentorium Cerebelli
C. Falx Cerebri
D. DiaphragmaSellae
C. Falx Cerebri
Where does CSF flow after the Fourth Ventricle?
A. Down central canal of the spinal cord
B. Foramen of Magendie
C. 2 Foramen of Luschka
D. All of the above
D. All of the above
Hydrocephalus is usually caused by:
A. Disease of meninges
B. Blockage of CSF circulation
C. Trauma
D. Blockage of artery to the brain
B. Blockage of CSF circulation
Which type of Hematoma has the highest mortality rate?
A. Acute subdural hematoma
B. Chronic subdural hematoma
C. Epidural hematoma
D. Subacute subdural hematoma
A. Acute subdural hematoma
CSF flows between the Third and Fourth ventricles through the:
A. Central canal
B. Interventicular foramen
C. Cerebral aqueduct
D. Dural sinus
C. Cerebral aqueduct
Commonly caused by some blow to the head, this injury is a result of arterial bleeding between the skull and dura mater, causing a separation of these layers.
A. Hydrocephalus
B. Subdural hematoma
C. Epidural hematoma
D. Ischemic stroke
E. None of the above
C. Epidural hematoma
Which of the following is NOT a sign or symptom of Epidural Hematomas?
A. A worsening headache
B. Vomiting
C. Decreasing consciousness
D. Blurred vision
E. Babinski’s sign
D. Blurred vision
What is the difference between Epidural and Subdural Hematomas in terms of bleeding?
A. Subdural Hematomas are usually associated with slower bleeding, due to a venous origin. Faster bleeding occurs during Epidural Hematomas, which consist of higher-pressure arterial bleeding.
B. Subdural Hematomas are usually associated with faster bleeding, due to a venous origin. Slower bleeding occurs during Epidural Hematomas, which consist of higher-pressure arterial bleeding.
C. Subdural Hematomas are usually associated with faster bleeding, due to an arterial origin. Slower bleeding occurs during Epidural Hematomas, which consist of higher-pressure venous bleeding.
D. Subdural Hematomas are usually associated with slower bleeding, due to an arterial origin. Faster bleeding occurs during Epidural Hematomas, which consist of higher-pressure venous bleeding.
E. There are no differences in terms of bleeding between Epidural and Subdural Hematomas.
A. Subdural Hematomas are usually associated with slower bleeding, due to a venous origin. Faster bleeding occurs during Epidural Hematomas, which consist of higher-pressure arterial bleeding.
A subdural hematoma occurs between which two meningeal layers?
A. Skull and dura mater
B. Dura and arachnoid mater
C. Arachnoid and pia mater
D. Dura and pia mater
E. Skull and arachnoid mater
B. Dura and arachnoid mater
Treatment for subdural hematomas includes which of the following?
A. Surgery: drilling a small hole in the skull and sucking the hematoma out.
B. Oral medications
C. Body heals itself
D. A and B
E. A and C
E. A and C
Name the word that doesn’t belong when talking about the area where the axons travel in the CNS:
A. lemniscus
B. Capsule
C. Shaft
D. Fasciculus
C. Shaft
Which of the following is located in the gray matter of the spinal cord?
A. Dorsal Column
B. Ventral Horn
C. Funiculi
D. Ventral Column
B. Ventral Horn
Which of the following Cranial Nerves is not purely sensory or purely motor?
A. Oculomotor III
B. Facial VI
C. Accessory XI
D. Vagus X
D. Vagus X
Which of the following arteries supplies blood to the cerebrum?
A. External Carotid
B. Vertebral
C. Basilar
D. Internal Carotid
D. Internal Carotid
How many arteries make up the Circle of Willis?
A. 5
B. 9
C. 7
D. 11
B. 9
Which of the following pairings is correct?

A) Preembryonic Stage= from conception to 2 weeks
B) Embryonic Stage= from the end of 8th week until birth
C) Fetal stage= from 2nd to end of 8th week
D) B and C
E) All of the above
A) Preembryonic Stage= from conception to 2 weeks
During the Embryonic Stage of development, the ectoderm forms what organs?
A) Gut, liver, pancreas, respiratory system
B) Sensory organs, epidermis, nervous system
C)Dermis, muscles, skeleton, excretory and circulatory functions
D) Lungs, heart, spleen, liver, gall bladder
B) Sensory organs, epidermis, nervous system
Another term for the hindbrain is:

A) Prosencephalon
B) Mesencephalon
C) Rhombencephalon
D) Myeloencephalon
C) Rhombencephalon
Which of the following is correct in regards to the formation of the neural tube:

A) Occurs from day 18 to 26
B) Formations occurs as Neural Plate  Neural Groove  Neural Tube
C) Open ends in tube are known as neuropores
D) The neural tube is completed in the cervical region first
E) B and D
F )All of the above
F )All of the above
T/F
Chiari malformation is a condition in which the cerebellum portion of the brain protrudes down into the spinal canal.
True
The most prominent symptom of a subdural hematoma is:
a. Worsening headache
b. Lucid interval
c. Nausea
d. Confusion
d. Confusion
Which answer shows the correct flow of Cerebral Spinal Fluid?
a. Lateral ventricles cerebral aqueduct  3rd ventricle  interventricular foramen  4th ventricle  4 exits (Lushka, Magendie, or Cenral Canal)  subarachnoid space  Arachnoid villi  dural sinuses  jugular vein.
b. Lateral ventricles  interventricular foramen  3rd ventricle  cerebral aqueduct  4th ventricle  4 exits (Lushka, Magendie, or Cenral Canal)  subarachnoid space  Arachnoid villi  dural sinuses  jugular vein.
c. Lateral ventricles  foramina of Lushka 3rd ventricle interventricular foramen  4th ventricle  cerebral aqueduct  subarachnoid space  arachnoid villi  dural sinuses  jugular vein.
d. Lateral ventricles  interventricular foramen 3rd ventricle  cerebral aqueduct  4th ventricle  4 exits (Lushka, Magendie, or Cenral Canal)  subdural space  arachnoid villi  dural sinuses  jugular vein.
b. Lateral ventricles  interventricular foramen  3rd ventricle  cerebral aqueduct  4th ventricle  4 exits (Lushka, Magendie, or Cenral Canal)  subarachnoid space  Arachnoid villi  dural sinuses  jugular vein.
Which type of hematoma is the most lethal?
a. Epidural hematoma
b. Subacute subdural hematoma
c. Chronic subdural hematoma
d. Acute subdural hematoma
e. All are equally lethal
d. Acute subdural hematoma
True or False: 70-80% of epidural hematomas occur within the temporal bone region (pterion).
a. True
b. False
a. True
Purely motor or sensory symptoms are signs of a:
a. Embolic stroke
b. Small vessel thrombotic stroke
c. Large vessel thrombotic stroke
d. None of the above
b. Small vessel thrombotic stroke
Which of the following is not a symptom of meningitis?
A) High Fever
B) Photophobia
C) Blurred Vision
D) Difficulty Waking Up
C) Blurred Vision
For which of the following types of meningitis will the patient recover within 3 days to 2 weeks with just rest and lots of fluids?
A) Bacterial
B) Viral
C) Fungal
D) Both Viral and Bacterial
E) Both Viral and Fungal
B) Viral
Which of the following factors can be used to predict risk of death from meningitis?
A) Abnormally low red blood cell count
B) Decreased level of consciousness
C) Severity of the generalized illness
D) B and C
E) All of the above
D) B and C
Mortality Rate from meningitis is lowest for:
A) Geriatrics
B) Adults
C) Infants
D) Older Children
D) Older Children
T/F There is evidence to suggest that genetics play a role in the susceptibility and severity of meningococcal disease in children
True
Name the six lobes that make up each cerebral hemisphere.
Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital, Limbic, Insular
Which of the following set of cranial nerves are primarily motor nerves?
a. III Oculomotor, I Optic, X Vagus
b. V Trigeminal, IV Trochlear, VI Abducens
c. X Vagus, VII Facial, XII Hypoglossal
d. VI Abducens, XI Accessory, VII Facial
e. XII Hypoglossal, IV Trochlear, XI Accessory
e. XII Hypoglossal, IV Trochlear, XI Accessory
Through which passage does CSF not immediately leave a ventricle to circulate around the central nervous system?
a. Left Lateral Foramina
b. Medial Foramen
c. Cerebral Aqueduct
d. Central Canal
e. More than one of the above
c. Cerebral Aqueduct
Which of the following arteries is not paired?
a. Posterior spinal artery
b. Segmental artery
c. Posterior communicating artery
d. Anterior spinal artery
e. Anterior medullary artery
d. Anterior spinal artery
Which of the following cerebral arteries is correctly matched with its corresponding anatomic area of the brain?
a. Middle cerebral artery – Longitudinal fissure
b. Posterior cerebral artery – Midbrain
c. Anterior cerebral artery – Lateral sulcus
d. Deep branches – Supply mostly white matter
e. Cortical branches – Supply mostly gray matter
b. Posterior cerebral artery – Midbrain
Which of these three cell layers forms last?
a. Ectoderm
b. Mesoderm
c. Endoderm
b. Mesoderm
Which of the following does NOT develop from the forebrain?
a. Diencephalon
b. Telencephalon
c. Cerebral cortex
d. 3rd ventricle
e. None – they all develop from the forebrain
e. None – they all develop from the forebrain
True or False: After the third month in utero, the rate of growth of the vertebral column exceeds that of the spinal cord. Up until then, they are the same length.
True
True or False: In early development, many neurons develop that do not survive. Neuronal death claims as many as half of the neurons formed during the development of some brain regions.
True
Neuropores close during which stage of nervous system formation?
a. First
b. Second
c. Fourth
d. Tenth
b. Second
Cerebral spinal Fluid is formed where?
a. Cerebral aqueduct
b. Thalamus
c. Choroid Plexus
d. EpiThalamus
c. Choroid Plexus
What is the flow of the cerebral spinal Fluid?
a. 1st ventricle, 2nd ventricle, 3rd Ventricle, 4th Ventricle
b. Lateral Ventricles, interventricular foramen, 3rd Ventricle, cerbral aqueduct, 4th Ventricle
c. Cerebral Aqueduct, 3rd Ventricle, 4th Ventricle, Choroid Plexus
d. Lateral Ventricles, Interventricular foramen, 4th Ventricle, Cerebral Aqueduct, 3rd Ventricle
b. Lateral Ventricles, interventricular foramen, 3rd Ventricle, cerbral aqueduct, 4th Ventricle
What are the 4 outlets the CSF goes to after the 4th ventricle?
a. 2 Magendie, a luschka and a central canal
b. a Magendie, 2 Central canals and a Luschka
c. Central Canal, Magendie, Luschka, and choroid plexus
d. Central canal, 2 Luschka and Magendie
d. Central canal, 2 Luschka and Magendie
Which is NOT a symptom the hakim Triad in Hydrocephalus?
a. Gait and balance impairment
b. Headache
c. Urinary incontinence
d. Dementia
b. Headache
Which is NOT a type of stroke?
a. Ischemic
b. Subdural hemorrhage
c. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
d. Intercerebral Hemorrhage
b. Subdural hemorrhage
Which is not a sign of stroke?
a) When asked to smile, one side of the face drops.
b) When asked to raise both arms, one arm drifts downward.
c) When asked to repeat a simple phrase, speech is slurred or strange.
d) When sole of foot is rubbed, the hallux dorsiflexes (Babinski’s sign).
d) When sole of foot is rubbed, the hallux dorsiflexes (Babinski’s sign).
What is not true regarding emergency room care for stroke patients?
a) CT scan is most important to diagnose type of stroke.
b) Patient is encouraged to swallow medication upon arrival.
c) Patient’s blood pressure and body fluid balance are watched closely.
d) Patient may have blood tests and an EKG.
b) Patient is encouraged to swallow medication upon arrival.
What does “t-PA” stand for?
a) Tissue Plasminogen Activator
b) Tri-phosphate Activase
c) Tissue Plasmin Activator
d) Thrombus Plasminogen Activase
a) Tissue Plasminogen Activator
T-PA…
a) Helps restore blood flow to damaged area by breaking down blood clots.
b) Helps prevent further hemorrhaging by assisting clot formation.
c) Is contraindicated for embolic and thrombotic stroke.
d) Is indicated for hemorrhagic stroke.
e) More than one of the above.
a) Helps restore blood flow to damaged area by breaking down blood clots.
T-PA…
a) Is only received by 3% of stoke patients.
b) Should be received within 3 hours after onset of symptoms.
c) Can be given through an IV or directly in the damaged artery.
d) Can stop/lessen brain damage.
e) All of the above.
e) All of the above.
A Multifocal lesion is?
a. Limited to a single location
b. Limited to several, nonsymmetrical locations
c. Affecting bilaterally symmetrical structures but does not cross the midline as a single lesion
d. An area of enhanced function.
b. Limited to several, nonsymmetrical locations
What plane divides the brain into left and right cerebral hemispheres
a. Sagittal
b. Transverse
c. Frontal
d. Coronal
a. Sagittal
Rostral is a term used to describe locations of the body. What does rostral mean?
a. Toward the tail or coccyx
b. Toward the back
c. Toward the front
d. Toward the head
d. Toward the head
Afferent axons carry information where?
a. From peripheral receptors toward the central nervous system.
b. From the central nervous system to the peripheral receptors
c. Afferent axons do not exist
d. From the brain to the big toe
a. From peripheral receptors toward the central nervous system.
The parts of the brainstem include:
a. Cerebral hemispheres, and midbrain
b. Frontal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, and temporal lobe
c. Medulla, pons, and midbrain
d. Circle of Willis, and Cerebral arteries
c. Medulla, pons, and midbrain
Which stage of development occurs in the 2nd to 8th week
a. Fetal
b. Pre-embryonic
c. Embryonic
d. midembryonic
c. Embryonic
Which of these is a layer of the embryonic disc which becomes the liver
a. Mesoderm
b. Endoderm
c. Myoderm
d. Ectoderm
b. Endoderm
The inner ring is the layer, which will become the gray matter.
a. Marginal
b. Middle
c. Median
d. Mantle
d. Mantle
The scleratome becomes the
a. Dermis
b. Spinal cord
c. Vertebrae
d. Skeletal muscle
c. Vertebrae
Chiari malformation is a condition in which the portion of the brain protrudes down into the .
a. Cerebellum, spinal canal
b. Cerebrum, spinal canal
c. Cerebrum, medulla
d. Cerebellum, medulla
.
a. Cerebellum, spinal canal
There are two main fluid systems in the brain. One of the systems is the vascular system. It includes which of the following?
a. Arterial Supply
b. Veins
c. Venous Sinuses
d. All of the above
d. All of the above
The CSF gets to the 4th ventricle from the 3rd ventricle through what?
a. Interventricular foramen
b. Cisterna Magna
c. Cerebral Aqueduct
d. Foramina of Lushka
c. Cerebral Aqueduct
The Tentorium Cerebelli separates what?
a. 2 cerebral hemispheres
b. 2 cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum
c. 2 cerebellar hemispheres
d. Frontal lobe from the parietal lobe
b. 2 cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum
Epidural Space is potentially located where?
a. Between the dura and arachnoid
b. Between the arachnoid and the pia
c. Between the dura and calvaria
d. Between the dura and pia
c. Between the dura and calvaria
Which of these is NOT a major Dural Sinus?
a. Superior Sagittal Sinus
b. Sigmoid Sinus
c. Transverse Sinus
d. Superior Petrosal Sinus
d. Superior Petrosal Sinus
What does Aphasia Mean?
a. Impairments in Speech
b. Impairments in Writing
c. All of the Above
d. None of the Above
c. All of the Above
What MOST commonly causes Aphasia?
a. Stroke
b. Head Trauma
c. Brain Tumors
d. Infections
a. Stroke
Which type of Aphasia would a patient have if they presented a symptom in which they called a fork a gleeble?
a. Broca’s
b. Wernicke’s
b. Wernicke’s
Which type of Aphasia would a patient have if they presented a symptom in which they had difficulty forming complete sentences?
a. Broca’s
b. Wernicke’s
a. Broca’s
What lobe of the brain would be affected in a patient that had Broca’s Aphasia?
a. Parietal
b. Frontal
c. Occipital
d. Frontal
b. Frontal
Match the 3 stages of human development with their correct time period:
a. Preembryonic – conception to 2 weeks, Embryonic – 2-8 weeks, Fetal – 8 weeks to birth
b. Preembryonic – 2-8 weeks, Embryonic – 8 weeks to birth, Fetal – birth to 2 weeks
c. Preembryonic – conception to 2 weeks, Embryonic – 2-8 weeks, Prenatal – 8 weeks to birth
d. Preembryonic – 1-12 weeks, Embryonic – 12-24 weeks, Fetal – 24 weeks to birth
a. Preembryonic – conception to 2 weeks, Embryonic – 2-8 weeks, Fetal – 8 weeks to birth
Which of the following embryonic layers is correctly matched to the structures it becomes?
a. Ectoderm – sensory organs, epidermis, nervous system
b. Endoderm – skeleton, muscles, circulatory organs
c. Mesoderm – gut, liver, pancreas, respiratory system
d. Exoderm – dermis, muscles, skeleton, excretory glands, circulatory organs
a. Ectoderm – sensory organs, epidermis, nervous system
Which of the following terms are correctly matched in order of development?
a. Hindbrain – Mesencephalon - Prosencephalon
b. Forebrain – Rhombencephalon – Metencephalon/Myelencephalon
c. Midbrain – Metencephalon - Mesencephalon
d. Forebrain – Prosencephalon – Diencephalon/Telencephalon
d. Forebrain – Prosencephalon – Diencephalon/Telencephalon
What structure(s) does the notochord end up forming?
a. Vertebral bodies
b. Nucleus pulposis
c. Spinal cord
d. Nucleus fibrosis
b. Nucleus pulposis
What do somites differentiate into?
a. dermatome, myotome, schleratome
b. rootlets, ventral ganglia, dorsal ganglia
c. autonomic nervous system, central nervous system, peripheral nervous system
d. dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
a. dermatome, myotome, schleratome
This structure is a network of capillaries in connective tissue and epithelial cells, which secretes cerebrospinal fluid.
a. Pia mater
b. Dura mater
c. Choroid plexus
d. Lateral ventricles
e. Blood brain barrier
c. Choroid plexus
Occlusion of the cortical branches of the anterior cerebral artery causes all these changes except_____________?
a. Personality changes
b. Contralateral hemiplegia
c. Hemisensory loss
d. Language impairment
e. All of the above are correct
d. Language impairment
Common causes of the congenital hydrocephalus include________
a. Failure of 4th ventricle to open
b. Blockage of the cerebral aqueduct
c. Cerebral palsy
d. All of the above
e. More than one above
e. More than one above
CSF flows from_______
a. The lateral ventricles into the third ventricle via cerebral aqueduct into the interventricular foramina via fourth ventricle.
b. The choroid plexus into the third ventricle via cerebral aqueduct into the fourth ventricle.
c. The lateral ventricles into the third ventricle via cerebral aqueduct into the fourth ventricle via lateral and medial foramina.
d. The lateral ventricles into the third ventricle via interventricular foramina, then into the fourth ventricle via the cerebral aqueduct exiting through the lateral and medial foramina.
d. The lateral ventricles into the third ventricle via interventricular foramina, then into the fourth ventricle via the cerebral aqueduct exiting through the lateral and medial foramina.
All of these are major dural sinuses, except ____________
a. Occipital sinus
b. Superior sagittal sinus
c. Straight sinus
d. Sigmoid sinus
a. Occipital sinus
what structures make up the craniosacral system?
A. cranium and sacrum
B. Cranium, sacrum, CSF
C. brain, sacrum
D. cranium, sacrum, csf, spine, brain
D. cranium, sacrum, csf, spine, brain
A therapist usually positions hands around the?
A. temporal area
B. frontal area
C. Occiput area
D.Parietal area
C. Occiput area
craniosacral therapy is MOST closely related to?
A. Physical therapy
B. chiropractic treatment
C. alternative medicine
D. Massage therapy
C. alternative medicine
what is the most valid answer that craniosacral therapy is not valid?
A. not enough "real" evidence
B. adult sutures are fused and are unable to expand
C. no real health benefits
D. A & B
E. all of the above
E. all of the above
What is the main belief the csf has on the craniosacral system?
A. create a contraction producing a pulse
B. redirect through body by hard pressure
C. realigns the nervous system
D. more than 1
E. all of the above
D. more than 1
What is considered the functional unit of the nervous system?
a. Neuron
b. Nephron
c. Nucleus
d. Node
a. Neuron
Which of the following is not glia cells?
a. Astrocytes
b. Oligodnedrocytes
c. Microglia
d. Ependymal cells
e. Parentocytes
e. Parentocytes
There how many systems extend through all regions of the nervous system?
a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Four
c. Three
Define rostral:
a. Toward the head
b. Nearest the orgin
c. Toward the coccyx
d. Farther from the midline
a. Toward the head
Ventral is to efferent to motor, Dorsal is to
a. Afferent to sensory
b. Efferent to motor
c. Afferent to motor
d. Efferent to efferent.
a. Afferent to sensory
Which of the follow is a purpose of the thalamus?
a. Coordinate Movement
b. Process emotion and memory
c. Maintain body temperature
d. Influences secretion of other endocrine glands
b. Process emotion and memory
Which of the following is not an area that the Vertebral Arteries supply?
a. Occipital Lobes
b. Temporal Lobes
c. Cerebrum
d. Brainstem
c. Cerebrum
Which of the following keeps blood from directly entering CSF and even covers the penetrating blood vessels into the brain?
a. Dura
b. Arachnoid
c. Pia
d. All of the above
c. Pia
Which of the following compose the meninges?
a. Dura
b. Arachnoid
c. Pia
d. All of the above
d. All of the above
Which of the following contains bundles of axons that convey information between left and right cortices?
a. Commissures
b. Corpus Callosum
c. Internal Capsule
d. Midbrain
a. Commissures
Where is the CSF formed?
a. The Cerebellum
b. The brain stem
c. The ventricles
d. The circle of Willis
c. The ventricles
What is not one of the meninge layers?
a. Duramater
b. Pia mater
c. Alma mater
d. Arachnoid mater
c. Alma mater
Where does the CSF empty into after it has gone round the brain?
a. Carotid artery
b. Jugular vein
c. subclavian artery
d. Coronary vein
b. Jugular vein
What is not a common sign of hydrocephalus?
a. Gait and balance impairments
b. Headache
c. Loss of vision
d. Incontinence
e. Frontal lobe functions
c. Loss of vision
What is the most common type of stroke?
a. Ischemic Stroke
b. Intracerebral hemorrhage
c. Subarachnoid hemorrhage
d. Heat Stroke
a. Ischemic Stroke
What does the Hindbrain differentiate into?
a. Metencephalon and Telencephalon
b. Diencephalon and Telencephalon
c. Telencephalon and Myelencephalon
d. Myencephalon and Mesencephalon
e. None of the above
e. None of the above
What does the Mantle layer become?
a. White matter
b. Gray matter
c. Scleratome
d. Neural Crest
e. Neural Tube
b. Gray matter
Which part of the neural tube closes first?
a. Inferior neuropore
b. Endoderm
c. Crest cells
d. Superior neuropore
e. Mantle layer
d. Superior neuropore
What is anencephaly
a. Failure of vertebrae to close
b. Failure of superior neuropore to close
c. Failure of closure anywhere in the neural tube
d. Improper formation of the spinal cord
b. Failure of superior neuropore to close
Which germ layer forms the neural plate
a. Endoderm
b. Mesoderm
c. Ectoderm
d. Myoderm
e. Inner cell mass
c. Ectoderm
What structure(s) make up the blood brain barrier
a. Arachnoid mater
b. Pia mater
c. Endothelial cells
d. A & C
e. B & C
e. B & C
How do needed nutrients get across the barrier and into the brain?
a. gap junctions
b. passive diffusion
c. transporter proteins
d. leaky capillaries
c. transporter proteins
According to our presentation what is given to patients to treat Parkinson’s disease?
a. Dopamine
b. Antibiotics
c. L-dopa
d. Pericytes
c. L-dopa
When is the Blood Brain Barrier formed?
a. Before birth
b. During birth
c. 2 weeks after birth
d. 4 weeks after birth
e. Never
a. Before birth
Where in the brain is the Blood Brain Barrier absent?
a. Thalamus
b. Hypothalamus
c. Basal Ganglia
d. Pituitary gland
e. Two of the above
f. Three of the above
g. The BBB is never absent
e. Two of the above
The somatosensory system______________?
a) Conveys information from the skin and musculoskeletal system to areas of the brain.
b) Provides bidirectional communication between the brain and smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and gland cells.
c) Transmits information from the brain to skeletal muscles.
d) Detects tension and or stress applied to nervous system tissue.
a) Conveys information from the skin and musculoskeletal system to areas of the brain.
The term rostsral refers to a structure that is_________?
a) Towards the back
b) Towards the fornt
c) Towards the head
d) Towards the coccyx
c) Towards the head
Which of the following is not a spinal cord horn?
a) Ventral horn
b) Anterior horn
c) Lateral horn
d) Dorsal horn
b) Anterior horn
White matter is composed of ___________, and gray matter is primarily composed of______________?
a) Neuron cell bodies, Axons
b) Dendrites, Axons
c) Axons, Dendrites
d) Axons, Neuron cell bodies.
d) Axons, Neuron cell bodies.
Which of the following is not a function of the right Hemisphere?
a) Visual spatial skills.
b) Memory is stored in auditory, visual, and spatial modalities.
c) Sequential analysis: systematic logical, interpretation of information.
d) Holistic functions such as dancing and gymnastics.
c) Sequential analysis: systematic logical, interpretation of information.
What of the following is the most common type of stroke.
a) intracerebral hemorrhage
b) Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
c) Ischemic
d) None of the above
c) Ischemic
A brief loss of function with full recover from neurologic deficits within 24 hours is what type of progression classification based on time of onset.
a) Transient Ischemic attack
b) Completed Stroke
c) Progressive Stroke
d) Temporary Stroke
a) Transient Ischemic attack
What are causes of Hydrocephalus?
a) Hemorrhages
b) Infections
c) Overproduction of CSF
d) All of the above
c) Overproduction of CSF
d) All of the above
Which of the following is NOT part to the Pterion?
a) Frontal Bone
b) Parietal Bone
c) Sphenoid Bone
d) Zygomatic Bone
d) Zygomatic Bone
What type of Hematoma is most deadly?
a) Subdural Hematoma
b) Epidural Hematoma
c) Subarachnoid Hematoma
d) None of the above
a) Subdural Hematoma
At what stage of development do organs start forming?
a) Pre-embryonic
b) Embryonic
c) Fetal
d) Conception
b) Embryonic
At what day of development does the superior neuropore close?
a) 25
b) 26
c) 27
d) 28
c) 27
The Pons, upper medulla, cerebellum, and 4th ventricle are formed from what primitive brain formation?
a) Diencephelon
b) Mesencephalon
c) Metencephalon
d) Prosencephalon
e) Myelencephalon
c) Metencephalon
A condition in which the cerebellum portion of the brain protrudes down into the spinal canal is called?
a) Arnold Chiari Formation
b) Syringomyelia
c) Cerebellar myelinitis
d) Protruding cerebellum
a) Arnold Chiari Formation
What is the most severe form of spina bifida called?
a) Paul Trippinitis
b) Meningocelle
c) Type 2 Spina bifida
d) Myelomeningocele
d) Myelomeningocele
The anterior cerebral artery does not supply blood to which part of the brain?
a) Temporal lobe
b) Frontal lobe
c) Anterior basal ganglia
d) Olfactory bulb and tract
a) Temporal lobe
An ischemic accident may be caused by:
a) High blood pressure
b) Vascular malformation
c) Anticoagulant treatments that are too efficient
d) Embolism
d) Embolism
Anterior cerebral artery stroke accounts for what percent of all strokes ????MCA?????
a) 45%
b) 60%
c) 70%
d) 90%
c) 70%
All may be a result of a stroke except
a) Paralysis, weakness, or sensory loss with ipsilateral side the body
b) Gait problems
c) Urinary incontinence with bilateral stroke
d) Problems with speech
a) Paralysis, weakness, or sensory loss with ipsilateral side the body
Another name for an aneurism is:
a) Seizure
b) Meningeal hemorrhage
c) Cerebral abscess
d) Atheromal hemorrhage
b) Meningeal hemorrhage
What is an Efferent Neuron and what type of information does it transmit?
a. A neuron that sends information from the body to the CNS-Sensory
b. A neuron that sends information from the CNS to the body-Sensory
c. A neuron that sends information from the body to the CNS-Motor
d. A neuron that sends information from the CNS to the body-Motor
d. A neuron that sends information from the CNS to the body-Motor
What is a function of the spinal cord?
a. To process information
b. To provide support to the movements of the back
c. To convey information between peripheral structures and the brain
d. A and B
e. A and C
f. B and C
g. All of the Above
e. A and C
What layer of the meninges is closely associated with the blood brain barrier?
a. Dura Mater
b. Arachnoid Mater
c. Pia mater
d. All of the above
c. Pia mater
How many anterior spinal arteries are there and how much of the spinal cord to they supply?
a. 1-1/3
b. 2-1/3
c. 2-2/3
d. 1-2/3
d. 1-2/3
Why is the basal ganglia important?
a. It helps to control movements
b. It helps to control sensory integration
c. It gives us the sense of a vertical position
d. It conveys information from one side of the brain to the other
a. It helps to control movements
The embryonic stage of development is from_____ to _____?
A. conception, 2 weeks
B. 2nd, end of 8th week
C. 8th week, birth
D. None of the above
B. 2nd, end of 8th week
True/False: Of the three main divisions of the developing brain the Mesencephalon is the largest portion of the developing brain?
False- prosencephalon
True/False: Spina bifida can occur at rostral and caudal ends of the spinal tube.
True
True/False: The inner (mantle) layer of the developing neural tube will become white matter.
False- Gray
The Forebrain is made up of:
A. Diencephalon
B. Telencephalon
C. Metencephalon
D. Myelencephalon
E. A & B
A. D & C
B. B & D
C. All of the above
E. A & B
The paired lateral ventricles are bordered by what structure(s)?
a. Caudate nucleus
b. Thalamus
c. Corpus Callosum
d. All of the above
d. All of the above
This extension of the Pia anchors the spinal cord to the dura mater, and controls back and forth movement of the spinal cord.
a. Arachnoid trabeculae
b. Denticulate ligaments
c. Collagen Fibers
d. Tentorium Cerebelli
b. Denticulate ligaments
Upon entering the subarachnoid space the CSF fluid flows around the spinal cord and brain and finally is absorbed through which?
a. Jugular Vein
b. Third Ventricle
c. Arachnoid Villi
d. Lateral Aperture
c. Arachnoid Villi
After the occurrence of a blow to the side of the head, the doctor was able to diagnose the patient as having an epidural hematoma due to the hallmark sign of the patient suddenly feeling better with no signs or symptoms. This period is known as…
a. Babinski’s sign
b. Awareness period
c. Lucid Interval
d. Critical Period
c. Lucid Interval
The Hakim triad is a typical manifestation of the distinct entity normal pressure hydrocephalus and includes these common signs…
a. Gait instability, urinary incontinence, dementia
b. Dementia, headache, incontinence
c. Gait instability, balance impairments, frontal lobe malfunction (emotion, planning..)
d. Urinary incontinence, gait Instability, headache
a. Gait instability, urinary incontinence, dementia
What is Hydrocephalus?
a. Shrinking of the brain
b. Water on the brain
c. Swelling of the spine
d. Enlargement of the ventricles
b. Water on the brain
What is the common cause of hydrocephalus?
a. Infection
b. Head trauma
c. Spina bifida
d. Tumor
e. A and B
f. C and d
g. All of the above
h. A and C
i. B and D
g. All of the above
What are some symptoms of hydrocephalus in infants?
a. Blurred vision
b. Irritability
c. Urinary incontinence
d. Lack of energy
e. Vomiting
f. A and B
g. B and E
h. C and D
g. B and E
True or False? Is Ventriculosectomy the most common way to treat hydrocephalus?
False
True or False? About half of the children who receive appropriate treatment and follow up will develop IQs greater than 85
True