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118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is letter i?
Scaphoid
What is letter a?
Lunate
What is letter a?
Lunate
What is letter c?
Triquetrum
What is letter e?
Pisiform
What is letter b?
Trapezium
What is letter b?
Trapezium
What is letter d?
Trapezoid?
What is letter f?
Capitate
What is letter g?
Hamate
What is a normal value for x?
1 mm
Where do the majority of tendons/ligaments pass through at the wrist?
Carpal Arch/Tunnel
Which ligament forms the top of the carpal tunnel?
Transverse Carpal Ligament
What is the shape of the proximal base of the phalanges?
Flat the concave
What is the shape of the distal head of the phalanges?
Convex
What is the classification of the distal radioulnar joint?
Synovial Pivot Joint
Where is the main stability of the triangular fibrocartilage complex?
Distal Radioulnar joint
Ulnar side of carpus
What is the purpose of the triangular fibrocartilage complex?
Cushioning
Force Transmission on ulna
Increase articular surface on ulna for carpus
Which structure is commonly overlooked in wrist injuries?
Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex
What are the 3 main complex joints at the wrist?
Radiocarpal
Mid-Carpal
Intercarpal
How much proximal row surface area is in contact with the radius with low loads?
20% or less
What provides soft tissue stability at the radio carpal joint?
Ligaments
Capsule
What type of motion is considered typical of the intercarpal joints?
Planar
What is a?
Radio Collateral Ligament
What is b?
Ulnar Collateral Ligament
What is c?
Palmar Radio Carpal Ligament
What is key characteristic of the intrinsic ligaments?
Can sustain larger loads with more deformation than the extrinsics
What are normal osteokinematics of the wrist?
Flexion: 0-90 degrees
Extension: 0-70 degrees
Radial Deviation: 0-25 degrees
Ulnar Deviation: 0-35 degrees
What motion occurs at a?
Roll
What motion occurs at b?
Slide
What motion occurs at c?
Roll
What motion occurs at d?
Slide
What motion occurs at e?
Roll
What motion occurs at f?
Slide
What motion occurs at g?
Roll
What motion occurs at h?
Slide
What is A?
Roll
What is B?
Slide
What is A?
Roll
What is B?
Slide
What is the open pack position of the wrist?
Neutral flexion/extension
Slight ulnar deviation
What is the closed pack position of the wrist?
Full Extension
What is the capsular pattern of the wrist?
Flexion and extension equally limited
What are the end feels of the wrist?
Flexion: firm
Extension: firm
Ulnar deviation: firm
Radial deviation: firm to hard
What are the wrist flexors?
Flexor Carpi Radialis
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
Palmaris Longus
What are the wrist extensors?
Extensor Carpi RadialisLongus
Extensor Carpi RadialisBrevis
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
Which muscles perform radial deviation?
Flexor Carpi Radialis
Extensor Carpi Radialis
Which muscles perform ulnar deviation?
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
During functional motion at the wrist, what is the common pathway?
Moving from wrist extension/radial deviation to wrist flexion/ulnar deviation
What are the 3 joints of the thumb?
CMC
MCP
IP
What is the joint classification of the thumb?
Saddle (triaxial)
Synovial
What are the osteokinematics of the thumb?
Flexion/Extension 15 degrees/ 50-80 degrees
Abduction/Adduction: 70/0 degrees
What is the joint classification of the 1st MCP joint?
Condyloid (biaxial)
What are the osteokinematics of the 1st MCP joint?
Flexion: 50-60 degrees
Extesnsion: 0-14 degrees
What is the joint classification of the 1st IP joint?
Hinge (uniaxial)
What are the osteokinematics of the 1st IP joint?
Flexion: 70-80 degrees
Extension: 20 degrees
What motion is A?
Extension/Flexion
What motion is B?
Abduction/Adduction
What motion is C?
Medial/Lateral Rotation
What motion is C?
Medial/Lateral Rotation
What motion is D?
Opposition
What motion is D?
Opposition
What are the two phases of thumb opposition?
1. Abduction
2. Flexion
Given what you know about the shape and motions of the IP joint of the thumb, what would be its arthrokinematics?
Roll and glide occur in the same direction
What are the 4 finger joints?
CMC
MCP
PIP
DIP
What is the joint classification of the CMC joints?
Gliding
What is the joint classification of the MCP joints?
Biaxial
What is the joint classification of the PIP joints?
Uniaxial Hinge
What is the joint classification of the DIP joints?
Uniaxial Hinge
What are the osteokinematics of the CMC joints?
Increased mobility from radial to ulnar side
What are the osteokinematics of the MCP joints?
Flexion: 90 degrees
Extension: 20-45 degrees
What are the osteokinematics of the PIP joints?
Flexion/Extension: 90/0 degrees
What are the osteokinematics of the DIP joints?
Flexion/Extension: 90/0 degrees
What are the arthrokinematics of the MCP joints?
Roll and glide occur in the same direction
What are the osteokinematics of the MCP joints?
Flexion: 90 degrees
Extension: 20-45 degrees
What are the osteokinematics of the PIP joints?
Flexion/Extension: 90/0 degrees
What are the osteokinematics of the DIP joints?
Flexion/Extension: 90/0 degrees
What are the arthrokinematics of the MCP joints?
Roll and glide occur in the same direction
What are arthrokinematics of the DIP joints?
Roll and glide occur in the same direction
What is the function of the palmar aponeurosis?
Anchor skin during grasp
Protection of underlying structures
Create tunnel-stability
What is a main purpose of retinaculum and fibrous pulleys?
Decrease bow stringing
What does "x" in figure B demonstrate?
Bowstringing
What are functions of synovial sheaths?
Important for protecting tendons
Reduce friction
What is "no mans land"
Area on the tips of the fingers with poor circulation that are not covered by synovial sheaths. Nutrition through diffusion to tendons.
What deformity is this?
Boutonniere
What deformity is this?
Swan Neck
What are A, B, and C in the figure?
A: Longitudinal Arch
B: Distal Carpal Arch
C: Proximal Carpal Arch
What are the flexor muscles of the hand?
Flexor digitorum suferficialis
Flexor digitorum profundus
Flexor pollicus longus
What are the extensor muscles of the hand?
Extensor Digit.
Ext. poll. Longus
Ext. poll. Brevis
Extensor indicis
Abductor poll
What are the muscles of the thenar eminence?
Abductor P. Brevis
Flexor P. Brevis
Opponens Pollicis
Adductor pollicis
What are the muscles of the hyothenar eminence?
Abductor digiti minimi
Flexor digiti minimi
Opponens digiti minimi
What are the generic intrinsics of the hand?
Dorsal interossei
Palmar interossei
Lumbricals
Tightness of the flexor digitorum superficialis could potentially result in what deformity?
Claw Hand
What nerve innervates the flexor digitorum superficialis?
Median
How strong in the flexor digitorum profundus compared to the superficialis?
50% stronger
What nerve innervates the flexor digitorum profundus?
Median and Ulnar
What would tightness of the flexor digitorum profundus result in?
Decreaces extension
Potential for claw hand deformity
What nerve innervates the wrist extensors?
Radial
If there is tightness in the finger extensors, why might we see flexion at the IP joints?
Because the way the extensor hood works.
What deformity is associated with tightness of the flexor pollicis longus?
Ape hand
Which action will be limited with a weak abductor pollicis?
Weak pinch
Besides thumb extension, what motion does the extensor pollicis longus perform?
Adduction of thumb
Which hand intrinsics abduct the fingers?
Dorsal Interossei
Which hand intrinsics adduct the fingers?
Palmar interossei
Which muscle flexes the MCP joints and extends the PIP and DIP?
Lumbricals
What is this position referred to as?
Intrinsic plus
Why must finger extensors and flexors be working at the same time?
Typing on a computer
Buttoning a shirt
Playing piano
What phases are a,b, and c?
a. early
b. middle
c. late
What phases are a,b, and c?
a. early
b. middle
c. late
When closing the hand, which motion at the fingers occurs first?
DIP flexion
What is this known as?
Tenodesis
What is this known as?
Tenodesis
What deformity is this?
Claw Hand
What deformity is this?
Drop Wrist
What deformity is this?
Ape Thumb
What nerve is damaged with claw hand?
Ulnar
What nerve is damaged with ape thumb?
Median
What nerve is damaged with drop wrist?
Radia