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88 Cards in this Set

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Homeostasis
Steady state of balance
Input
Accepted input from the environment
Output
What happens output to the environment
Throughput
processing the input
Entropy
No energy from the outside - dying
Negative entropy
Successful use of available energy
Equifinality
Capacity to get identical results from different conditions
Feedback
When output from systems is put back into system
Transactional
The responsibility for change rests with the interaction between clients and the environment
Systems Theory
Dynamic interaction between parts of the whole
Ecological / Life Systems Model
Focuses on the interrelatedness between people and the environment
What is important in the Ecological / Life Systems Model?
Degree of Fit between person and the environment
Adaptedness
Goodness of fit between client and the environment
Niche
where someone fits in the environment or social system they are in
Habitat
Physical and social setting
Positive Stress
Environmental demand that is perceived as a challenge and therefore viewed positively
Negative Stress
discrepancy between the demand and the capacity for meeting it
Functional Approach
Growth with the center of change resting with the client; helping rather than treating
Planned Short-Term or Task-Centered Treatment
Assess
Set goals
Define Tasks
What is the primary aim for the planned short-term or task-centered treatment?
To quickly engage clients in the problem-solving process and to maximize their responsibility for treatment outcomes
Problem Solving Approach
All human life is a problem solving process; translates ego psychology into principles of helping action
What are the four P's of the Problem Solving Approach?
Person, Problem, Place (agency), Process (therapeutic approach)
Psychosocial Approach
Diagnosis is based on psychosocial Hx
According to Freud, what is the basis for psychopathology?
Unresolved conflict
Determinism
Ideas and thoughts are not random they are related to prior experiences and events (Freud)
Structural Model
(Freud) uncsonscious, preconscious, conscious
Dynamic Principle
(Freud) The attempts to understand the interaction between the Id, Ego and SuperEgo
According to Freud, what causes anxiety
Unresolved conflict
Failure to resolve a conflict at any stage in development
Fixation
What does Determinism mean under Freud?
Behavior is not random. It is determined by events and experiences preceding.
In Freudian theory what causes anxiety?
Unresolved conflict
Genetic Principle
Freudian principle that the early years if childhood are very important in personality development
Under Freud what are therapeutic stages?
Clarification, confrontation, interpretation and working through intrapsychic conflict
What theory was developed by Anna Freud and Erik Erickson?
Ego Psychology
Does ego psychology focus on the past, present or future?
Here and now - the present
What is reality testing?
The accurate perception of a situation
In Ego Psychology, what are coping abilities also called?
Ego strengths
Who developed Individual Psychology?
Alfred Adler
Who believes that all individuals are "striving for perfection"?
Alfred Adler
According to Adler, when children experience negative feedback or perceived weakness, what might develop?
A sense of inferiority
Which theory and person believed that healthy individuals have broad social concerns?
Adler or individual psychology
What is the goal of Adlerian therapy?
To develop a more adaptive lifestyle and overcome feelings of inferiority so one can contribute to the social good.
Who developed self-psychology?
Kohit
What is the goal of self-psychology?
To develop a greater sense of self cohesion.
What technique might Kohut or self-psychology use?
Regression
What is empathetic failure?
Concept in self-psychology or by Kohut which means that the child did not receive the support needed at a critical time and this could result in a disorder.
Name three self-object needs according to Kohut?
Mirroring, idealization, twinship
Name some humanistic or existential models of therapuetic practice?
Rogerian or client-centered
Gestalt
Transactional Analysis
If a therapist is practicing unconditional positive regard, accurate empathy, and genuineness, what therapeutic model might they be practicing?
Rogerian or client-centered therapy
Gestalt therapy seeks to do what?
A heightened awareness through the split-off parts of oneself.
The integration of mind, body, thoughts and action are central to which therapeutic model?
Gestalt Therapy
Which therapeutic approach is process-oriented and focuses on awareness, wholeness, contact and self-regulation
Gestalt (Perlman)
Empty Chair technique might be used in what kind of therapy model?
Gestalt
What is transactional analysis?
Each person has three ego states - parent, adult and child
What type of therapist might have written the book, "I'm OK - You're OK"
Eric Berne - Transactional Analysis
Which type of therapy might use psychodrama?
Transactional analysis
What is the post-modern model of therapy?
Base don the premise that the truth is not absolute. A push back against the modern principle that all would be learned and explained by science.
Narrative Therapy believes in....
Externalizing the Problem
Problem Saturated Stories
Mapping the Problems Domains
Unique Outcomes
Spreading the News
Name some Behavioral Therapies
Behavior Modification
CBT
In Behavioral Therapies the focus is on what?
Observable Behaviors; targeting an observable symptom, problem behavior or issue in the environment
What are the two types of behavior in behavioral therapy?
Operant and Respondent
What is Operant Behavior
Behavior that is made by choice
What is Respondent Behavior?
Automatically elicited behavior like anxiety or sexual response
What type of therapy model believes that behavior is conditioned?
Behavioral Therapy
What type of therapy model might work best with smoking, phobias, being overweight, or even with autistic children?
Behavioral Therapy
Who developed the theory of classical conditioning?
Pavlov
What is it called when a stimulus is repeatedly paired with an involuntary response?
Classical Conditioning
Who developed Operant Conditioning?
Skinner
Operant Conditioning
Antecedent events or stimuli are followed by behavior which is followed by consequences. Consequences that encourage the behavior are called reinforcements and consequences that discourage the behavior are called punishments
What is modeling or observational learning?
Learning by watching others
Positive Reinforcement
Positive consequence that increases the likelihood of the behavior
Negative Reinforcement
The removal of a consequence to increase the likelihood of a behavior (aversion; shock treatment)
Positive Punishment
Unwanted stimulus to decrease the behavior (bad tasting stuff on fingernails to quit biting nails)
Negative punishment
The removal of a desired stimulus to decrease behavior (take away favorite toy)
Chain
How events/actions/behavior are linked from one antecedent to another
Fading
A term used to describe moving from one stimulus controlling behavior to another
Extinction
Withholding a reinforcement will eventually cause the action to cease
Prescriptions
Worker tells client exactly how to behave
Systematic Desensitization
A behavioral intervention that pairs a relaxation response with an anxiety producing thought or behavior
In vivo desensitization
Systematic desensitization but at the event or site of anxiety
Aversion Therapy
Antabuse with alcohol treatment
Shaping
Train a new behavior by providing promoting and reinforcing behaviors as one gets closer to the desired behavior
Flooding
Individual's anxiety is extinguished by prolonged imaginal or in vivo exposure to high intensity stimuli
Contingency Contract
A contract between two individuals that agrees on a behavior and the positive and negative consequences
Rational Emotive Therapy
Change client's irrational beliefs by teaching clients to control self-defeating thinking with non-distressing self statements
Sensate Focus
Developed by Masters and Johnson and is a type of sexual therapy that involves in vivo desensitization and communication
What is Cognitive Restructuring?
A type of therapy where one learns to change dysfunctional thinking patterns and beliefs
What are some basic tenants of cognitive therapies?
Thinking determines behavior
Therapy should focus on the present
Client must recognize connection between thoughts and actions