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14 Cards in this Set

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What drug was discovered by accident while looking for a new anesthetic?
Thorazine
What happened as a result of the discovery of the antianxiety drug mentioned in the previous card?
Deinstitutionalization - movement to get people out of state hospitals and into group homes, etc.
What is the definition of abnormal anxiety?
"an illness that prevents an individual from coping and that can disrupt daily life"
What are the 5 major disorders that fall under the category of anxiety disorders?
- Generalized Anxiety Disorder
-Panic Disorder
-Social Anxiety Disorder
-Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
What are the major characteristics of GAD??
-7 million people in the US have it
-Exaggerated worry, tension w/no recognizable cause
-Insomnia
-Pt's have a lot of somatic (bodily) complaints
-Happens in anxiety and depression
What are the general characteristics of Panic Disorder?
-3-6 million people in the US suffer from it
-Sudden episode of terror
-Chest pain, palpitations, SOB, dizziness, feelings of unreality, fear of dying (like an MI)
-Live in fear of of having another attack, makes it worse
What are the 5 general characteristics of Social Anxiety Disorder?
-Excessive concern
-Feeling scrutinized by others
-Fear of being embarrassed
-Fear of being humiliated
-End up with avoidance behavior as it gets more severe
What are the 4 general characteristics of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder?
-Anxious thoughts/rituals like fear of germs and obsessive hand washing
-persistent and unwelcome obsessions
-Repetitive acts relieve the obsession
-Addiction disorders fall in this category
What is the difference between obsession and compulsion?
Obsession - Recurrent and intrusive thoughts
Compulsion - Acting out the obsession; relieves the anxiety for a bit
What are the 4 main characteristics of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder?
-5-6 million people with it in the US
-Disabling condition that follows a traumatic event
-Includes flashbacks of traumatic events while awake (intrusive recollections)
-Affecting many Iraq War Veterans and 911 victims
What are the mechanisms (pathologic causes of) of anxiety?
-Dysregulation in the brain; increase in:
-Gamma aminobytyric acid (GABA)
-Norepinepherine (NE)
-Serotonin (5-HT)
What class of medications is used to treat anxiety? How do they work in general?
Anxiolytics
-They increase the amount of GABA, NE, and 5-HT produced in the brain and decrease overstimulation of the cells
What are the general characteristics of Insomnia and of normal sleep?
-Usually a sequalae of anxiety
-Usually only enter stages 1-3 of sleep, but don't get to stages 4-5 or REM
Sleep usually runs in 90 minute stages and REM is the restorative part
-About 25% of sleep is REM
What do we assess when someone is complaining of difficulty sleeping?
-Is it initial insomnia (can't get to sleep) or intermittent insomnia (wake up frequently during the night) or does the pt experience early-morning awakenings?
-What is normal for the pt?
-GABA and seritonin play a large role in sleep problems and anxiety