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88 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What is Psychology?
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
What are the goals of psychology?
Seek to describe,explain, presict and control behavior and mental processes
Define Theory
A formulation of relationships underlying observed events
How are logical theories used by psychologists?
To combine statements about behavior,mental processes, and biological processes.
What do psychologists do?
Pure research, Applied Research, Practice pshycology, and teaching
What is Pure Research?
Has no immediate application to personal or social problems, therefore has been characterized as research for its own sake
What is Applied Reseach?
Designed to find solutions to specific personal or social problems.
What are Clinical psychologists?
They help people with psychological disorders adjust to the demands of life. Usually using interviews and tests.
What are Counseling psychologists?
Use interviews and tests to define their clients' problems.
What are school psychologists?
They are employed by the school systems to idetify and assist students who have learning problems.
What are Educational psychologists?
They attempt to facilitate learning, usually focusing on course planning and instructional methods of the school system rather than on the individual student.
What are Developmental psychologists?
Study the changes that occur throughtout the life span.
What are Personality psychologists?
They focus on on goals such as identifying and measuring human traits;determining influences on human thought processes, feelings, and behavior.
What are Social psychologists?
They are primarily concerened with the nature and causes of indivudials' thoughts, feelings, and behavior in social situations.
What are Environmental psychologists?
Study the qways in which people and the enviroment influence each other.
What are experimental psychologists?
Specialize in basic processes such as nervous system,sensation, and perception, learning and memory, thought motivation, and emotion.
What are Industrial psychologists?
Focuses on the relationships between people and work.
What are Orginizational psychologists?
Study the behavior of people in organizations such as buisnesses.
What are Human Factors psychologists?
Makes technical systems such as automobile dashboards and computer keyboards user friendly.
What are Health pyschologists?
Examine the ways in which behavior and mental processes such as attitudes are related to physical health.
What are Sport psychologists?
Helps people's performance in sports.
Who was Aristotle a student of?
What famous child did he tutor?
Alexander the Great
Who was his father physician to?
A king.
What is he the founder of in Greece?
The world's first university...Lyceum
What is Aristotle sometimes called?
The father of modern psychology.
What did he number?
The five senses.
What is empiricism?
View that science could rationally treat only information gathered by the senses.
What did Democritus suggest?
That we could thing of behavior in terms of body and a mind.
What is Structuralism?
The school of psychology that argues that the mind consists of 3 basic elements-sensations, feelings, and images-that combine to form experience
Wilhelm Wundt
What is Funtionalism?
Belief that In the study of the individuals focus should be on behavior as well as the mind and consciousness
William James
Who is John Broadus Watson?
Discovered Behaviorism which is the belief that psychology should limit itself to observable, measurable events and behavior.
What is the book that Aristotle wrote?
Peri Psyches
History of psychological thought
What does Gestalt translate to?
"Pattern" or "organized whole"
What was the belief of B.F. Skinner?
Believed organisms learn to behave in certain ways because of reinforcement.
Who are the founders of the Gestalt Psychology?
Wertheimer, Koffka, and Kohler
there are 3
What do Gestalt psychologists focus on?
The perception and on how perception influnces thinking and problem solving
"Organized Whole"
Gestalt psychologists believed taht learning could be what?
Active and purposeful.
Not just responsive and mechanical as it Watson's and Skinner's experiments
What does psychoanalysis focus on?
The unconsious--the seething cauldron of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes.
The ID
Who was Psychoanalysis founded by?
Sigmond Freud
What is Psychoanalysis also known as?
Who is Mary Whilton Calkins?
The first female president of the American Psychological Association who could not recieve her degree that she rightfully earned from Harvard because she was female.
Stood up for her rights.
What kind of theory did Chrisiting Ladd-Franklin formulate?
Color vision
Who is Margaret Floy Wasburn?
First woman to recieve a Ph.D. in psychology
Wrote 'The Animal Mind'
What is the Scientific Method?
An organized way of using experience and testing ideas in orded to expand and refine knowledge
What is a Hypothesis?
A specific statement about behavior or mental processes that is testesd through research.
How can you test a hypothesis?
Through controlled methods such as the experiment
What is Replication?
Repeating a study to see if the findings hold up over time with different subjects
What is the correlation method?
A mathmatical method of determining whether one variable increases or decreases as another varible decreases or increase
Who invented the use of the Correlation method?
Sir Francis Galton
cousin of Charles Darwin
What is a selection factor?
A source of bias that may occur in research finding when subjects are allowed to choose for themselves a certain treatment in scientific study
What does it mean to generalize?
To extend from the particular to the general; to apply observations based on a sample to a population
What is a Sample?
Part of a population
Define Population
A complete group of organisms or events
Define Random Sample
A sample drawn so that each member of a population has an equal chance of being selected to participate
Define Stratified Sample
A sample drawn so that identified sub groups in the population are represented proportionately in the sample
Define volunteer bias
A source of bias or error in research reflecting the prospect that people who offere to participate in research studies differ systematically from people who do not
What is a case study?
A carefully drawn biography that may be obtained through interviews, questionaires, and psychological tests
What is a survey?
A method of scientific investigation in which a large sample of people answer questions about their attitudes or behavior.
Define naturalistic observation
A scientifc method in which organisms are observes in their natural enviroments
What is positive and negative correlation?
A relation ship between variables in which one variable either increases as the other also increases (positive) or decreases (negative)
Define Experiment
A scientific method that seeks to confirm cause and effect relationships by introducing independent variables and observing their effects on dependent variables
Define treatment
A condition receive by subjects so that its effects may be observed
What is an independent variable?
A condition in a scientific study that is manipulated so that its effects may be observed
What is a dependent variable?
A measure of an assumed effect of an independent variable
What are experimental groups?
Groups whose members obtain the the treatment (in experiments)
What are control groups?
Groups whose members do not obtain the treatment while other conditions are held constant (in experiments)
What are Placebos?
A bogus treatment that has the appearence of being genuine
The experimental terminology that describes a subject taht is unaware of whether or not one has received a treatment
What is a double-blind study?
A study in which niether the subjects nor the observers know who has the treatment
What can correlational studies suggest but not prove?
Cause and Effect
What is the definition of ethical?
Moral; referring to one's systems of derivin standards for determining what is moral
What is the point of basic ethical standards?
Intended to promote individual dignity, human welfare, and scientific integrity
What is the main basic ethical standard?
Do not undertake research methods that are harmful.
What is kept due to ethical standards with humans?
Psychologists _________ to humans the results of research conducted with animals.
When can animals be harmed in research?
When there is no alternative and when the researchers believe that the benefits justify the harm
What are 3 of the 8 principles of critical thinking?
*Be skeptical
*Examine definitions of terms
*Examine the assumptions of premises of arguments
*Be cautious in drawing conclusions from evidence
*Consider alternative interpretations of research evidence
*Do not oversimplify
*Do not overgeneralize
*Apply critical thinking to all areas of life

What does the Barnum effect allow?
It allows generalized personality reports to sound perfectly accurate
How many ppl in the US believe in Astrology?
1 in 4
out of 4!!
How many people in the US occasionaly check their horoscope and out of that percent how many reget the idea?
In percent
What book did Charles Darwin write?
"The Orgin of the Species by Natural Selection"
What serves as the material base for our behaviors, emotions, and cognitions
What are Mutations?
Differences in individual traits and/or adapations for survival
What is Evolutionary Psychology?
Applies adaptation and natural selection to mental processess and bahavior?
One's biological structures and processess transmitted from generation to generation is what?
What does behavioral genetics do?
Bridges the sciences of psychology and biology.
What are molecular genetics?
The area of genetics that focuses on the idenification of specific genes that are connected with the development of traits, behavior, and mental processes