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35 Cards in this Set

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What is the definition of Psychology?

The scientific study of behaviour and mental processes in humans.


What is behaviour?

Any observable action made by a living person.

What is mental processes?

An individuals thoughts and feelings that are personal and cannot be directly observed.

One difference between a psychiatrist and a psychologist is?

A psychiatrist has a medical degree and a psychologist does not.

The philosophical beginnings of psychology more than 2000 years ago started with the philosophers....

Socrates, Plato and Aristole

William James defined psychology as a study of consciousness and he used the approach of...

Functionalism

Which leader in psychology rejected the emphasis on the unconcscious and instead proposed that psychology should focus on observable behaviours?

John B Watson

Sigmund Freud challenged the previous theories of psychology and instead foccused on

The roles of unconscious conflicts and motivations in understanding behaviour and mental processes

Which is not one of the four prominent perspectives in contemporary psychology; BIOLOGICAL, SOCIO CULTURAL, PSYCHOANALYTIC OR COGNITIVE?

Psychoanalytic

Which of the four prominent perspectives in contemporary psychology focuses on how we aquire, process, remember and use information about ourselves and the world around us?

Cognitive

The scientific method is

A series of systematic and orderly steps which researchers use to plan and conduct research

When conducting research the correct order for the steps in the research process are:

Construct hypothesis, design method, collect data, interpret data, report findings

What is an hypothesis

A testable prediction of the relationship between two events

What is a clinical psychologist?

Involved in assesment, diagnosis, and treatment of mental health problems, and major mental illness

What is a clinical neuropsychologist?

Specialises in the assessment of changes in behaviour and mental irregularities in brain function eg) head injury, stroke etc

What is a community psychologist?

Specialises in community issues and helping people achieve their goals in areas such as community health and welfare.

What is a councelling psychologist?

Assists people of all ages to deal effectively with all kinds of personal and relationship issues that impact on their mental health and wellbeing

What is a Educational or Developmental psychologist?

Specialises in assessment, intervention and counselling services relevant to the management of developmental and educational issues across the lifespan

What is a forensic psychologist?

Focuses on the legal and criminal justice system. They may provide an expert opinion to the courts on such matters as criminal behaviour, child abuse and custody disputes.

What is a health psychologist?

They specialise in understanding the effects of psychological factors related to physical health and illness.

What is an organisational psychologist?

Focuses on ways of assisting organisations such as private companies and govt departments.

What is a sport psychologist?

Applies psychological theories and ideas in helping elite level, proffesional, recreational and other athletes achieve peak performance and develop personal wellbeing and life adjustment skills.

What is a biological psychologist?

Focuses on biological, or bodily, structures, systems and activities that are associated with behaviour and mental processes.

What is a cognitive psychologist?

Focuses on how people acquire, process, remember and use information.

What is a peronality psychologist?

Studies peoples characteristic and ways of thinking, feeling and behaving that collectively make up personality.

Psychology is not a pseudo science because...?

Psychology uses a scientific approach when conducting research.

What is Structuralism and who founded it?

Stucturalism focused on the structure of consciousness that is the basic parts or building blocks that make up consciousness, how the parts are organised and how they are interrelated.




Structuralism was founded by Wilhelm Wundt

What is Functionalism and who founded it?

Functionalism focused on studying the functions or purpose that mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment.




It was founded by William James

What is Psychoanalysis and who founded it?

Psychoanalysis focused on the riles of unconscious conflicts and motivations in understanding and explaining behaviour and mental processes.



It was founded by Sigmund Freud

What is Behaviourism and who founded it?

Behaviourism involves understanding and explaining how behaviour is learned and moulded by experience. Behaviourism believes that both humans and animals learn and mould behaviours based on reward and punishment.




It was founded by John B Watson

What is Humanism and who founded it?

Focusees on understanding and explaining behaviour and mental processes via the belief that each individual is unique and is based on the assumption that all people are born good and that, throughout their life, each individual strives to each their full potential.



It was founded by Carl Rogers

What is the biological perspective?

Focuses on the biological influences on behaviour and mental processes, including the brain and nervous system, the endocrine system, the immune system and genetics.

What is the behavioual perspective?

Focuses on how behaviour is acquired or modified by environmental consequences such as rewards and punsihments.

What is the cognitive perspective?

Focuses on how we aquire, process, remember and use information about ourselves and the world around us.

What is the socio cultural perspective?

Focuses on the roles of scoial and cultural influences on human behaviour and mental processes.