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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
personality
refers to a distin ctive pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual over time
traits
characteristics that are assumed to describe the person across many situations
cardinal traits
indivdual characteristics that make each of them unique
secondary traits
more changeable aspects of personality. ex. preferences, habits, casual opinions, and the like
factor analysis
procedure that identifies clusters of correlated items that seem to be measuring some common, underlying factor
face traits
visible in a person's words or deeds
source traits
the underlying sources of surface qualities
introversion versus extroversion
describes the extent to which people are outgoing or shy
neuroticism
emotion instability. includes such traits as anxiety and an inability to control impulses
agreeableness
describe the extent to which people are good-natured or irritable, gentle or head-strong, cooperative or abrasive. etc
conscientiousness
describes the degress to which people are responsible or undependable, persevering or likely to quit
Openness to experience
imagination, describes the extent to which people are original, imaginative, questioning, artistic, and capable of creative thinking
temperaments
relatively stable characteristic styles of respinding to the environment that appear in infancy or early childhood
genes
the basic units of heredity made of DNA
behavioral geneticists
concerned with the genetic bases of ability and personality
heritability
gives us a statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variation in a particular trait that is attributable to genetic variation among individual within a group.
identical twins
monozygotic. develop when a fertilized egg divides into two parts that become seperate embryos.
fraternal twins
dizygotic. two eggs released in the woman's ovaries instead of one
behaviorism
observation and direct measuremtent of behavior and acts and events taking place in the environment
operant conditioning
the consequences of any act powerfully affect the probability that the act will occur again (coluntary)
reinforcers
pleasant consequence
locus of control
refers to people's beliefs about whether the results of their actions are under their own control
internal locus of control
believe that they are responsible for what happens to them (in control of their own destiny)
external locus of control
believe that they are vistioms of luck, fate, or other people
culture
program of shared rules thta govern the behavior of members of a community or society; set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most membebrs of that community
individualist cultures
the "Self" is often defined as a collection of personality, independence
collectivist cultures
group harmony trakes over the wishes of the individual, and the "self" is defined in the context of relationships and the larger community
monochronic cultures
time is organized into linear segiments in which people do one thing "at a time"
polychronic cultures
time is organized along parallel lines and many things are done at one time
psychodynamic
emphasizes the movement of psychological energy within the person, in the form of attachments, conflicts, and motivations
intrapsychic
the movement of psychich forces within the mind
iD
present at birth, expresses sexual and aggressive instincts, follows the pleasure principle; unconsious
Ego
mediates between desires of the id and demand of the superego, follows the reality principle; partly consious
superego
represents conscience and the rules of society, follows internalized moral standards; mostly unconscious
defense mechanisms
weapons ego uses to relieve tension
psychic reality
focus on fantasies and symbolic meanings of events as the unconscious mind percieves them
free association
talking about anything that pops into your head
libido
psychic energy
repression
occurs when threatening idea, memory or emotion is blocked from consciousness
projection
occurs when a person's own unacceptable or threatening feeling are repressed and then atributed to someone else
displacement
occurs when people direct their emotions toward things, animals, or other people that are not the real object of their feelings
reaction formation
occurs when a feeling that produces unconsious anxiety is transformed into its opposite in consiousness
oral stage
makes first year of life, nourishment through mouths
anal stage
age 2 to 3, start of ego development, child becomes aware of the self and of the demands of reality
the phallic or (Oedipal) stage
roughly from 3 to age 6, sexual sensation
letency stage
phallic stage until puberty
genital stage
begins at pubery and marks the beginning of mature adult sexuality