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35 Cards in this Set

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Psychodynamic Theory
* mind is active
* personality is created through the conflict of the individual's needs and the constraints of society
* how well the individual deals with these conflicts determines both the health and the structure of personality
Psychoanalysis
* late 1800s
* "what causes our behaviors?"
* focus on the unconscious
* proposed and championed by Sig Freud
* don't make your own decisions-behavior is predetermined
* pessimistic- all the things you want to do, society says you can't do it
Freud's Early Work
* private practice
* Case of Anna O.
- sides would go paralyzed, blind deafness, bizarre eating partterns, break with reality
- hypnosis
- catharis: take any neg. feelings and get them out
- wrote "Studies of Hysteria"
Seduction Hypothesis
* sexual problems key to hysteria
* childhood sexual abuse causes hysterical symptoms in adulthood
* not well received so revised
- repressed sexuality come from imagined rather than actual sexual events
Psychosexual Stages:
Oral Stage
birth to age 2
pleasure by eating, stimulation of lips
Psychosexual Stages:
Anal Stage
age 2 to 4
toilet training
Psychosexual Stages:
Phallic Stage
age 4 to 6
*Oedipal/Electra attraction to opposite sex parent
*castration anxiety, penis envy
Psychosexual Stages:
Latent Stage
age 6 to 12
solidification of earlier developed personality traits
Psycholosexual Stages:
Genital Stage
age 12 to ???
personal and sexual maturity, lasts until death
Theory of Personality: what are the three components of personality
Id, Superego, Ego
Id
*source of all innate biological needs
*aggression, sex, ero (need to live), thanatos (need to die)
*Pleasure Principle
Superego
*values, religion, restraints imposed by society
*learned through socialization, internalized
*Morality Principle
Ego
*mediates between Id and Superego
*satisfy needs without violating conceptions of right and wrong
*responsible for enacting defense mechanisms
Conflict-Anxiety Defense
Examples:
Repression
Suppression
Denial
Displacement
Regression
Idntificaiton
Compensation
Intellectualization
Raction formation
Benefit of Conflict-Anxiety Defense
reduce anxiety
Costs of Conflict Anxiety Defense
*prevent realistic elimination of the conflict
*distort reality
Psychopatholgy
study of mental illness
* "Pathology or disease of the mind"
Criteria for Psychopathology
*abnormal behavior
*violation of social, cultural norms
*distress or personal suffering
More Criteria for Psychopathology
*thought, emotions, behavior that are maladaptive, disruptive, harmful to self and/or others
*culturally dependent- is it normal for the cultural group the person is in?
Severity of abnormal behavior is based on three components:
1. bizarreness of behavior
2. persitence of behavior across time and situation
3. effects on ability to function in a social context
DSM-IV-TR
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Text Revised
handbook to help classify thier clients' complaints
DSM-IV-TR is designed to:
*clarify, help communication, facilitate research
*not used to classify people
*criteria for each disorder which can aid diagnosis
Axis 1
all clinical disorders except axis II
Axis II
personality disorders and mental retardation
Axis III
general medical condition
Axis IV
psychosocila and environmental problems
Axis V
global assessment of funtioning- a number telling the person how well or not well they are doing
Personality Disorders
*Axis II
*Long standing personality traits- inflexible, maladaptive, distressful, and are extremely resistant to change
*Very prone to misdiagnosis- people usually don't admitt that they have a problem
Clinical Features of Personality Disorders
*Disrupted relationships
*problem behavior- behavior that make has become an additive problem
*Negative Life Outcomes
*Consistent problem behavior
*Marked by high effects on others
*Highly resistatn to change
Cluster of Personality Disorders: Cluster A
Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal
*seen as odd or eccentric
Cluster of Personality Disorders: Cluster B
Histrionic, narcissitic, antisocial, borderline
*dramatic, emotional, erratic, impulsive behavior
Cluster of Personality Disorders: Cluster C
Avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive
*anxiety and fearfulness
Antisocial Personality
*violate the rights of others
*lack of remorse or loyalty to anyone
*some are even charming and intelligent
*called "sociopaths" or "psychopaths"
What are the risk factors of antisocial personality?
*biological disruption
*low SES- social economic status
*family history of dysfuntion or psychopathy
What is the "Psychopathic Trio:
*enuresis-bed wetting
*fire setting
*cruelty to animals