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45 Cards in this Set

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Social Psychology
The branch of psychology concerned with how others influence the way a person thinks, feels and act.
Social Cognition
The mental processes by which people make sense of themselves, others, and their social situations.
Minimal self
The concious experience of self in the here and now, as it is shaped by, but separate from, the immediate environment. E.G. need to find food, sex, sleep, etc. Most animals experience just a minimal self.
Objectified Self
Cognitive capacity to serve as the object of one's own attention, such as being aware of one's own state of mind. (Some nonhuman primates have shown an ability to express objective self)
Symbolic Self (Narrative self)
Uniquely human capacity to form an abstract mental representation of oneself through lang. Includes sense of identity, autobio memories, expectations for the future...etc.
Self awareness
A state in which the sense of self is the object of attention
Self Awareness
A state in which the sense of self is the object of attention
Reflected appraisals
The views we believe others have of us. E.G. I believe I'm generous b/c I think others see me as generous. Imaginign how others would view certain behaviors produces emotional states that help guide our actions.
Self recognition
Intitial phase in developing sense of self. Found to develop in children around 18 mo to 2 yrs. Experiment: Put rouge on nose of child and show mirror...if child recognizes self it will attempt to rub the rouge or make a face.
Self discrepancy theory
(Tory Higgins) Awareness of differences between personal standards leads to strong emotions. E.G. Discrep. between how we see ourselves and how we would like to see ourselves lead to disappointment etc.
Right Hemisphere and self
The right hemisphere seems to be responsible for self recognition as in pictures or a mirror. See Keenan experiments page 422.
Self concept
The full store of knowledge that people have about themselves.
Self schema
The cognitive aspect of the self-concept, consisting of an integrated set of memories, beliefs, and generalizations about the self. E.G. When asked, "Are you ambitious?" one does not have to recall every instance where you acted ambitiously or not. The self schema summarizes it for you.
Cocktail party effect
E.G. being as a crowded, noisy party but being able to hear your name spoken across the room. This effect occurs because info about the self is processed deeply and thoroughly.
Working self concept
condenses self concepts into working schemas for different situations. E.G. You see yourself as more fun loving then intelligent while partying. Also leads to tendency towards self distinction...E.G. Canadians more likely to mention (act like) they are Canadian while in Boston rather than Toronto.
Self complexity
The number of disting aspects they use to define themselves. E.G. story of two pre-med students Bill and Linda.
Interdependent self-construals
When self-concepts are determined largely by social roles and personal relationships. Found more in collective cultures such as in Asia, Middle East, Africa, etc.
Independent self-construals
A view of the self as separate from others, emphasizing self-reliance and the pursuit of personal success. Found in most Western Cultures that emphasize indiv. liberties.
Self Esteem
The evaluative aspect of the self-concept
Sociometer
An internal monitor of social acceptance of rejection.
Self-enhancement motive
The tendency of people to seek out positive info about the self, and prefer info that confirms their positive self-views.
Better than average effect
Tendency of people to rate themselves as better than avg. in all aspects thus sometimes inflating the ratings towards being unreal.
Positive Illusions
Overly favorable and unrealistic beliefs...exist in at least 3 domains.
1) Overestimate their own skills, abilities, etc.
2)unrealistic perceptions: believe they are valuable to their sports team, etc.
3) Unrealistically optimistic: Engage is risky behaviors.
Terror Management Theory
theory that self esteem protects people from the horror associated with knowing they will eventually die. Ergo, people will try to live up to a societal norm as to what is good or may be immortalized...and those reminded of death tend to engage is self esteem boosting activity.
Self-evaluative maintenance
People can be threatened when someone clost to them outperforms them on a task that is personally relevant. This method also leads people to publicize their relationships with winners and hide relationships with losers.
Social comparison
occurs when people evaluate their own actions, abilities, and beliefs by constrasting them with other people's. In general, those with high self esteem make downward comparisons and vice versa. But H.S.E. people make upward comparisons when evaluating role models for the future. People also tend to make downward comp. to their former selves.
Self serving biases
Tendency of those with high self esteem to take credit for success but blame failure on outside factors. People who are in a minority group tend to have high self esteem b/c they use self serving biases. When they do well they beat the odds...when they do poorly they can blame discrimination.
Attitude
The evaluation of objects or ideas to indicate like or dislike toward them. Consist of three components-affect,cognition, behavior. This tricomponent model of attitudes indicates how people feel about an object, what they believe about it, and how they behave towards it.
Conditioning of Attitudes
Classical conditioning: E.G. pairing an attractive celeb with a toilet bowl cleaner to lead to better attitudes about the t.b.c.
Operant conditioning: occurs by evaluating consequences...e.g. studying will equal a good grade.
Religious, political, and other leaders in society also shape attitudes about many things e.g. worms are gross to eat in western cultures but a delicacy in others.
Heritability of attitudes
Attitudes not inherited in genetically in the same manner such as eye color, etc., but people may inherit a nervous system that predisposes them to thinking music such as jazz is pleasing or irritating.
implicit attitudes
Attitudes that influence our feelings and behavior at an unconcious level. Easily retrieved and have high attitude accessibility.
Cognitive dissonance
When there is a contradiction between two attitudes or between some attitude and behavior.
persuasion
The active and concious effort to change attitudes through the transmission of a message.
Elaboration likelihood model
A theory of how persuasive messages lead to attitude change. "Central Route" to persuasion is one in which people pay attention to args., consider info and use rational processes. Vs. "peripheral route" to persuasion in which people minimally process the message, e.g. deciding to purchase new bottled water b/c fav. rap artist endorsed it.
Effort justification
The resolution of dissonance in a person who has undergone extemely difficult, painful, or embarrassing things to be a part of a group. Used in cults, frats, etc.
Personal Attributions
Explanations that refer to internal characteristics, such as abilities, traits, moods and effort.
Situational attributions
Explanations that refer to external events, such as the weather, luck, accidents, or the actions of other people.
Correspondence bias
The tendency to expect people's behavior to agree with their dispositions.
outgroup homogeneity effect
The tendency for people to view outgroup members as more similar to each other than ingroup members.
ingroup favoritism
The tendency for people to evaluate favorable and privelege members of the ingroup more than members of the outgroup.
Stigma
A very strong devaluation that extends to a person's entire character.
Self fulfilling prophecy
People come to behave in ways that confirm their own or other's expectations.
Stereotype threat
a phenomenon in which individuals who feel that their behavior may confirm or verify a negative stereotype perform poorly in a given test.
Contact hypothesis
The idea that increasing contact and familiarity with outgroup members will reduce negative attitudes towards them.
superordinate goals
Goals that require people to cooperate in order to succeed.