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52 Cards in this Set

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Personality
all the consistent ways in which the behavior of one person differs from that of others
Psychodynamic
major theory of personality; involves the interplay of conflicting forces w/in the individua, including some that the individual may not consciously recognize; key figures: Freud, Alfred Alder, Carl Jung
Id
Ego
Superego
-includes all of our biological drives, based on "pleasure principle"
-rational, decision-making aspect of the personality, "reality principle"
-contains memory of parental moral, and societal rules
*part of psychodynamic theory
Trait Approach
major theory of personality; peope have consistent personality characteristics that can be measured and studied; key figures: Sandra Bem-androgony
Internal Locus of control
External Locus of control
-people who believe that they are largely in control of their lives
-people who believe that they are controlled mostly by external forces
Learning Approach
major theory of personality; personality is learned on a situation-by-situation basis, influenced greatly by social factors; key factors: Walter Mischel
Gender Role
the pattern of behavior that each person is expected to follow b/c of being male or female; key figure: Sandra Bem
Humanistic Approach
major theory of personality; personality depends on what people believe and how they percieve the world; key figures: Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological Safety Love Esteem Self-Actualization
Why measure personality?
To predict behavior
Personality dimension
superfactor - a set of related personality traits
Big Five
5 superfactors that represent condensed personality traits; Extraversion, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness
Personality Inventory
personality test; provies a summary of the different traits that constitute a person's personality; Personality Profile
Projective Tests
the subject "projects" himself into the situation depicted in the picture and consequently reveals his personality; Rorschach Inkblots
Thematic Apperception Test Picture
tell a story about a picture
Observation
a way to discover personality; an observer simply notes the behavior of a person or a group of people; uncontrolled - naturalistic observation
controled - situational testing
Hartshorne & May
personality is highly dependent on the situation; kids with coins in their desks
Primacy Effect
(first impressions) - we tend to be influenced more by earlier information when thinking about people
Stereotype
a generalized belief or expectation about a group of people
Positive Stereotype
black people can jump
Neutral Stereotype
Hispanics eat spicy food
Negative Stereotype
Irish people drink a lot
Prejudice
an unfavorable stereotype that includes a negative attitude toward a group of people
Overcoming stereotypes and prejudices
get to know someone or a group of people
work together toward a common goal
Attribution
the set of though processes we use to assign causes to our own behavior and to the behavior of others
Internal Attributions
we attribute behavior to an internal source
External Attributions
we attribute beharior to an external source
Fundamental attribution error
the tendency to make internal attributions for other people's behavior
Self-Serving Bias
you attribute your failures to external causes and successes to internal causes
Groupthink
in a group, the tendency to think alike and suppress dissent
Group Polarization
the tendency of group members' opinions to become more extreme (in the same direction as their initial opinions) after group discussion
Conformity
changing one's behavior to match the behavior of others as a result of real or imagined group pressure
Deindividuation
the loss of sense of self that occurs when people in a group are literally anonymous; can lend to inappropriate behavior (violence)
Diffusion of Responsibility
the tendency to feel less responsible to act when other people are nearby
Social Loafing
the tendency to work less hard when sharing work with other people
Cognitive Dissonance
a motivating force to change either an attitude or behavior esp. if self-esteem is threatened
To minimize Codnitive Dissonance
change some of his attitudes to bring them in line with his actions
Schizophrenia
split mind
Strongest predictor of alcoholism
parental alcoholism
Abnormal Behavior
the condition is somehow undesirable or maladaptive
DMS
manual of mental disorders
Group Polarization
the tendency of group members' opinions to become more extreme (in the same direction as their initial opinions) after group discussion
Conformity
changing one's behavior to match the behavior of others as a result of real or imagined group pressure
Deindividuation
the loss of sense of self that occurs when people in a group are literally anonymous; can lend to inappropriate behavior (violence)
Diffusion of Responsibility
the tendency to feel less responsible to act when other people are nearby
Social Loafing
the tendency to work less hard when sharing work with other people
Cognitive Dissonance
a motivating force to change either an attitude or behavior esp. if self-esteem is threatened
To minimize Codnitive Dissonance
change some of his attitudes to bring them in line with his actions
Schizophrenia
split mind
Strongest predictor of alcoholism
parental alcoholism
Abnormal Behavior
the condition is somehow undesirable or maladaptive
DMS
manual of mental disorders