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74 Cards in this Set

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Dominating Predisposition- Pivot point in life. Notorious People
Cardinal Traits
Major Charactristics of who you are
central traits
Traits in a specific circumstances
Secondary traits
Responsible for Trait Theories
Gordon Allport
Who is responsible for Psychodynamic theory of Personality?
Sigmund Freud
Divisions of the Mind
ID
Ego
Superego
Immediate gratification of all instinctive drives regardless of reason, logic, or the possible impact of behaviors
Pleasure Principle
Freud's Greatest Contribution
"Defense Mechanisms"
Rationalization
where an individual substitudes self-justifying excuses or reasons for behavior
Denial
defense mechanism that denies painful thoughts
Repression
protects you from impulses or ideas that would cause anxiety by preventing them from becoming conscious
Reaction Formation
take unacceptable drive and do the exact opposite
Displacement
displacing your anger on someone less threatening
ID
Sex, aggression, Self gratification
Ego
the conscious mind
Superego
Morality, Concscience
Stage between 12 to 18 months where the lips and mouth are the primary erogenous zone
Oral Stage
Stage between 12 months and 3 years where the erogenous zone shifts from the mouth to the anal area
Anal Stage
Stage between 3 to 5 or 6 where the focus of sexual gratification is genital stimulation
Phallic
The attraction a male child feels for his mother and jealousy for his father. During the phallic stage
Oedipus Complex
The attraction a female child feels for her father and jealousy for her mother. During the phallic stage
Electra complex
Extending for about age five to puberty, where sexual drives remain unexpressed or latent
Latency Period
Fifth and final stage, starts at puberty, where dormant sexual feelings that were dorment in the latency stage reemerge
Genital Stage
Arrested development that results from exposure to either too little or too much gratification
Fixation
People who want control over their lives
Anal Expulsive
Poeple who want control
Anal Retentive
Oediepus complex
Boy wants mom, represses the memory, hangs out with dad, learns male gender role
People's personality/behavior is impacted by enviroment and mental processes
Reciprocal determinism
Individuals belief that he/she can perform adequately and deal effectively with a particular situation
Self-efficacy
Objective Test *Research supports validity and reliability
Question and answer type surveys

beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, like/dislikes (characteristics)
Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory MMPI
survey 500+ questions
Info on possible disorders
Projective Tests
1. Ambiguous stimulus
2.Expect a person to "project" their personality onto ambiguous stimulus
Rorschach Inkblot test
subject is asked to examin inkblots and say what they look like or bring to mind
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Not valid
tendency for an individual to feel a diminished sense of responsibility to assist
Diffusion of Responsibility
way in which we perceive, evaluate, categorize, and form judgments about the qualities of other people
Social Peception
Attribution Theory
1. make sense of behavior
2. internal causes
3. external causes
Interpret people's behavior based upon certain "conditions"
Correspondent Inference Theory
Social Desirability
when people do things that are seen as good
Social Undesirability
when people do things that are not seen as good
Free Choice
if you know that freely chose to behave in a particular manner, we probably assume that these actions reflect underlying dispositions
Fundamental Attribution Error
Overestimate dispositional causes (they're a jerk) and underestimate situational causes (they're under a lot of stress
False consensus
Assumption that most people share our own attitudes and behaviors
Illusion of Control
Belief that we control events in our own lives that are really beyond our control
Conformity
tendency to change or modify behavior so that they are consistent with those of other people
Informational Social Influence
Basis of conformity, in which we accept a group's beliefs or behaviors as providing accurate information about reality
Normative Social Influence
Changing to gain some benefit, not because "you" or our opinion has actually changed
The Diagnostic & Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM)
1. Criteria for diagnosis
2. Categories: Types, Subtypes
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
chronic worry about everything
Panic disorder
Constant worry over when their next panic attack will occur
Phobias
irrational, exaggerated fears of a specific situation or object
Agoraphobia "fear of the Market Place"
Stay in the security of their home because anxiety is to great to leave
Social Phobia
Irrational fear of being negatively evaluated
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
1.Obsessions- persistent, unwanted thoughts (irrational) INTRUSIVE (causing anxiety)

2.Compulsions- Are behaviors (sometimes repetitive) that are done specifically to get rid of the anxiety caused bye the obsessions
Somotoform Disorders
"Real" physical symptoms but without organic or medical causes (caused by psychological issues
Hypochondriasis
over concern that they will get or have a serious medical illness
Conversion Disorder
Sensory or motor system disorder
Dissociative Disorders
disorders involving disruption in memory, identity and/or consciousness
Dissociative Amnesia
loss of memory without an organic or biological cause.
Dissociative Fugue
1. loss of memory and identity

2. Relocation in extreme Cases
Dissociative Identity Disorder
1.Once called Multiple personality disorder

2.Extrememly RARE

3.Loss of identity, memory, and consciousness

4.Linked to history of extreme physical and sexual abuse
Major Depressive Disorder "clinical depression"
1. Symptoms 2 weeks or more

2. deep and persistent depression
Bipolar Disorder
Manic Episodes, Have depression, Manic/Mania (elevated mood or euphoria)
Seasonal Affective Disorder
Depression that occurs during times that there is less sunlight, treated with Phototherapy
Schizophrenia
distortions in perception, thoughts, emotions, behaviors
Schizophrenia syptoms
1.Delusions- irrational thoughts, emotions, and behaviors

2.Hallucinations- perceptions without sensation
Schizophrenia causes
1.Dopamine Hypothesis- Neurotransmitter that is over utilized in brain

2.Brain Abnormalities- Ventricles- gluid filled spaces or gaps in the brain, enlarged
Personality Disorder
1. Inflexible and rigid traits

2. Blame everything but themselves

3. Rarely seek help

4. Treatment rarely successful

5. Start as early as adolescence
Classical conditioning technique that pairs the slow, systematic exposure to anxiety, inducing situations with relaxation training. Used on phobias
Systmatic Desensitization
Aversive conditioning
pair an aversive stimulus (pain or illness) with the unwanted behavior
Token Economics
1.Given tokens for good behavior (reinforcement)

2.Save and trade in tokens for a bigger reward
Psychosurgery
Lobotomy- drill hole into brain, stop/control aggressive behavior
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
shock therapy, used as last resort for depression/bipolar, side effect is memory loss
Psychoactive Drugs
refers to medications that are used to treat psychological disorders