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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Language
a system of symbols that follows social rules
Linguists
study the structure of language
Psycholinguists
-combined psychology and linguistics
-study the development of language, thought, symbols and the social use of language
phonemes
basic perceptual units of language
sounds made in a language
phonetic expansions
babies make all sounds in all languages
3 stages of Phonetic Expansions
-cooing
-babble
-phonetic contraction
cooing
-2-3 months
-open ended vowel sounds
babble
-6-10 months
-constonant and vowel sounds together in repeated syllables
phonetic contraction
-9-10 months
-stop producing sounds not in their native language
morphemes
smallest meaningful unit of language
rat - 1 morpheme
rats - 2 morphemes
Berko - Gleason
did an experiment to learn if children learn inflections from rules or hearing the words
-they learn from rules
syntax
-grammar
-rules that specify the order for putting words together
-subject, verb, predicate
semantics
-the meaning of the message
-influenced by verbal and nonverbal messages
B.F. Skinner
-children aquire syntax through operand conditioning
-children use words and get positive result from adult
Chompsky
-said children learn principles for language because they are inate
-language acquistion device (LAD)
4 reasons inflections are inate (according to chompsky)
-children learn language no matter what language from 18months to 2 years
-kids overregularize language- children will appy regular rules of inflection to irregualar examples(goose-gooses)
-use telegraphic speech-make simple sentances with only critical words(mommy go work)
-infant directed speech(motherese) high pitch, simple grammar, slow pace
Developmental Psych
study of how we change
Piaget
studied cognitive development in children and how they see the world
-first to say that younger children think different from older children
4 stage model of cognitive development (piaget)
-sensory-motor period
-preoperational period
-concrete operations
-formal operational period
Sensory Motor period
-0-2 years
-children have no built cognitive abilities(babies are born with no thoughts
-all knowledge is dependent on the child's actions
-reflexes
-babies actions change and knowledge changes and thought becomes internalized
Rooting Reflex (S-MP)
touch cheek, baby will turn head towards touch (food)
Object Permanence (S-MP)
-6-8 months
-knowledge that an object exists even when the baby is not doing anything to it
Deferred Imitation (S-MP)
-18 months
-child imitates an absent model, pretend play imagination
Beginning of Representational Thought (S-MP)
hold symbols and ideas in their head that stand for something (language)
Preoperational Period
-2-7 years
-thought is internalized, symbolic but not logical(lots of cogitive errors)
conservation(PP)
confusion by appearence(water cups)
egocentrism(pp)
self centered understanding of the world/difficulty taking the perception of others
Concrete Operations
-7-12 years
-thought becomes logical, but it is tied to real world events (mathematical operations)
-no abstract thoughts
Formal Operational Period
-12 and up
-abstract thought from hypothetical situations
-algebra, scientific method
-systematically solving problems (if ->then)
2 Criticisms of Piaget
-children show variations of cognitive abilities ealier then piaget believed (children are also no as egocentric as piaget believed (teach younger children))
-babies are more mentally active and alert then piaget thought (learn what mom looks like 1-2 days old)
Moral Devleopment
Piaget and Kohlberg
-cognitive psych
-how we think and make decisions about morality
-how children acquire and understand rules
3 stages of rules (by age)
-before age 5-very little understanding of rules
-age 6-first real understanding of rules, but are taken to extreme, rules come from source outside themselves(god, police), harsh penalties to those who break rules, difficulty distinguishing between intention and outcome
-age 10- kida are more flexable with rules
cross-sectional study
study differnt individuals at different ages at the same time
logitudinal study
study the same individuals over time as they age
heinz dilemma
-kohlberg presented childre with this dilemma
-man with wife who is dying, must steal drugs