Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a mental grouping of similar objecs, events, ideas or people
a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin)
a mehtodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier-but also more error-prone- use of heuristics
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithims
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions
confirmation bias
a tendency to seach for information that confirms one's preconceptions
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving
mental set
a tendency to apporach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
representativeness heuristic
judging the liklihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information
availability heuristic
estimating the liklihood of events based on their availability in memory: if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
the tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
belief bias
the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, somtimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions to seem invalid.
belief perserverance
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited