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97 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
exercise on stress
number one option. reduces response to stressor, lower heart rate and stress hormone.
DNA
nucleotides in triplet codes in spiraling molecule complex
genes
specific sequence of triplet codes that provide recipe for protein synthesis
chromosome
collection of gene-humans 46
genome
entire set of codes on human chromosomes
dna mutations
reversals, change, missing codes. PKU (can't digest protein) and Sickle cell anemia
autosomal anomalies
extra or missing material. trisomy 21 downs syndrome
sex chromosome anomalies
extra or missing sex chromosome x or y.Turners XO female, sterile only has one x. Cognitive issues
Klinefelters XXY males- same as Turners for males.
family studies
higher correlation if genetic influene.
twin studies
MZ concordance rates higher than DZ twins.
adoption studies
the adopted child will resemble the biological parents more.
sensation
process of encoding physical energy in the environment into neural signals
perception
process of selecting, organizing and intepreting neural signals. This depends on experience, motivation.
what is the relationship between sensatoin and perception
not 1-1. sensation does not equal perception
absolute threshold
minimum stimulation required for detection 50% of the time
Just noticeable differnce
minimum detectable difference betwen two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time
Weber's law
the amount of increase in a stimulus for a jnd is a constant proportion to the initial stimulus. 8% for light, 2% for weight, .3% for tones
sensory adaptation
ability to focus on some stimuli and screen out others
vision
cornea-pupil-lens-retina(rods/cones,bipolar and ganglion cells)-optic nerve-thalamus-visual cortex
cones
register color. concentrated in the center, (red, blue or green wave lengths) of the eye
rods
concentrated in periphery of retina, more light sensitive
color vision
trichromatic and opponent process
audition
pinna-auditory canal-eardrum-hammer/anvil/stirrup-oval window-coclea-basilar membrane-nerve fibers-auditory nerve-thalamus-auditory cortex
basilar membrane
hair cells
conduction
hearing loss due to damage to ear drum. hearing aid can help
nerve deafness
damage to hair cells on basilar membrane. get older, more damage, no treatment
olfaction
nose transduces chemical compounds.
molecules-olfactory epithelium-olfactory cells-olfactory nerve-olfactory bulb
gustation
tongue transduces chemical componds.
tongue-papillae-tastebuds-receptor cells-thalamus-cortex
vanilla and apricot
reduce anxiety
smell of cookies and coffee
increased helping behavior of shoppers
food smells in subway
decrease in shoving by 40%
licorice and lavender
increases sexual arousal
cherry and bbq
decrease in sexual arousal
schizophrenic patients
can't recognize cheese and bananas, but can smell pizza and cloves
parkinsons
cant recognize pizza and cloves but can cheese and bananas
phermones
air hormones. undetectable - no conscious awareness.
the bruce effect
recently impregnanted mice will miss carry if they smell strange male mouse.
gestalt said what
whole is greater than sum of parts
perceptual organization
tendency to impose order-
proximity, similarity, closure, good figure
selective attention
voluntary focus.
perceptual sets/schemas
experience and context influence perceptions. it has to be believed to be seen.
blakemore's kitten studies
isolated kittens from birth, only say horizontal or vertile lines. after 6 weeks, blind the lines they had never seen before
monocular cues
relative size
relative height
texture gradient
interposition
relative brightness
convergence
what are the levels of consciousness
consciouness
preconscious
non-conscious
unconscious/subconscious
altered states
consciousness
immediate awareness in which we indentify, monitoring, controlling and planning. passive is absorbing info, active is speaking, problem solving.
preconscious
readily accessible memories and habitual behaviors. (knowing your mother's b-day)
non-conscious
not aware of what stomach is doing until stomach pains.
unconscious/subconsciou
inaccessable memories.
freuds theory
3 parts of personality.
ID
ego
superego
ID
present at birth. uncounscious. pleasure principle. seeks constant gratification.
altered states
change in awareness, monitoring, control. (sleep/dreaming, drug altered, hynosis, etc.)
Freuds stages
libido
oral
anal
phallic
latency
genital
freuds theory
3 parts of personality.
ID
ego
superego
EGO
develops in first year of life. conscious. reality principle. regotiates with world to satisfy Id without punishment
Superego
develops between 3-5 years old. unconscious. morality priciple. seeks to curtail ID.
oral
0-1. gums, mouth for infants. gratified through feeding and putting things in mouth
anal
2-3. control of rectal muscles
phallic
3-5. oedipal and electra complexes
oedipal
boys to mom. ID wants mommy, superego says no, thinking of castration
electra
daughters look to father, penis envy, mad at mom for not giving them penises
latency
5-12. girls think boys have cootie, and vice versa
genital
13 and on. resolve phallic issues.
cincadian rhythm
biological clock- regulates activity on a 24 hour cylce
pineal gland
secretes melatonin in brain
scn
responds to light/dark. controls hormones. near the optical nerve, works off exposure from light to dark
what does the circadian rhythm control?
walking, sleeping, alertness.
temperature
hormones, neurotransmitters
digestive, excretory and maintenance activity
pain sensitivity
walking, sleeping, alertness
circadian rhythm. alertness lowest after waking. peaks for most late morning, early evening.
temperature
circadian rhythm. nadir 2 hours before waking, peaks later afternoon
nadir
lowest point
hormones and neurotransmitters
serotonin nadir around 4 am
sex hormones peak around waking in morning
digestive, excretory and maintenance activity
entrain to imposed schedule. max efficiency corresponds to normal mealtimes
pain sensitivity
peaks in morning, ebbs later in day
what is desynchrony of biological clock and what the symptoms
when travel from one time zone to another. fatiue, insomnia, digestive upset, irritability, depression
SAD
Seasonl Affective Disorder. depression. 33% report winter malaise and weight gain. Treatment is 2-3 hours am and pm exposure to full spectrum high intensity light
physiololgy of sleep
increase of muramic acid
increase of sps (sleep promoting substance)
increase in DSIP (delta sleep inducing peptide)
increase in melatonin
RAS "shut down" and reduced brain metabolism
function of sleep
hide from predators
fewer calories burned
restorative for neurotransmitters and immune cells
stage 1 of sleep
transistion to sleep, alpha slower, irregular eeg. myoclonia ans hypnagogic imagery occur
alpha waves
the slow brain waves of a relaxed state
myoclonias
when you jerk when falling asleep
hypnagogic imagery
visual images, no story line
stage 2 of sleep
irregular eeg, spindles and k complexes. godd deal of sleep in stage 2- 30-40 min.
how many cycles of sleep and for how long?
cycle through the 5 stages, 90 minutes, 5 times a night.
stage 3 of sleep
short transistion phase, 20-50% delta waves. sleep walking.
delta waves
the large slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.
stage 4 of sleep
deep sleep. >50% delta waves. 30 minutes the first cycle, less each following cycles. sleep walking and night terrors.
stage 5 of sleep
REM, irregular eeg, increase HR, respirarion, brain activity, dreaming occurs. 20-25% of sleep is spend in REM sleep.
Rapid eye moement.
If deprived of REM, it will be made up the next night.
Freud's psychological theory on dreams
unconscious comes out when dreaming.
lots of sexual symbolism
Hobson activatin synthesis
dream sleep goes through and sorts out sensations of the day, and stores. Develop new neuropath ways, and maintance is done. Filing memories away can turn into dreams during REM sleep
sleep deprivation
irritability, immunosuppression, poor concentration, misperceptions, slow performance, more accidents, illusions, paranoia
the great american sleep debt
60% of Americans get less than 7 hours a night.
sleep apnea
stop breathing in sleep. snoring and snorting can be symptoms. can have surgery for palate, or get appliance to puff air in mouth.
night terrors
mostly young children, stage 4 sleep. Not remembered
somnambulism
sleepwalking. stage 3 and 4
insomnia
49% report some symptoms, 15% chronic. alcohol and other drugs fracture sleep stages
Parasomnias
RED
NSRED
RED
rapid eye movement disorder. act out violent dreams during REM. 90% are males over 50 40% go onto develop Parkinsons
NSRED
nocturnal sleep- related eating disorder. Chaotic indiscriminate eating