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35 Cards in this Set

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Attitude formation via:
Classical Conditioning
when a neutral stimulus comes ot have meaning when paired with a conditioned stimulus over time to evoke a specific reaction.

ex. a child notices his mother frown each time she encounters a memeber of a particular ethnic group, soon the child associates negative reactions to such members and the child himself starts to acquire a negative attitude towards them.
Attitude formation via:
Instrumental Conditioning
attitudes form as a result of awards and punishment, can be suble or overt

ex. everytime a little child says "yankees rock" her Yankee-fan parents reward her with priase, or a cookie, eventually the child forms a favorable attitude towards the Yankees.
Attitude formation via:
Observational Learning
attiudes form by observing someone else's views/attitudes.

ex. even though a parent might tell their child to not smoke, as they light up, the child will still learn that it's ok....they do as their parents do, not as they say
When do attitudes predict behavior?
1) in an absence of social restraints
2) when formed through direct experience
3) when attitudes are strong
4) when attitudes and behavior are measured at the same level of specificity
5) when attitudes are assessed directly before behavior
6) when attitudes are held by low-self monitors
What is the mere exposure effect?
attitudes become positive as a result of repeated exposure, comfort in familiarity
What is cognitive dissonance?
when we desire consistency between attitudes and behavior, and when there is an inconsistency, we experience cognitive dissonance
How can we reduce dissonance?
1) change our attitudes
2) change our behavior
3) alter the importance of discrepancy
4) reduce perceived choice
5) add cognitions (reasons/justifications)
What is self-perception theory?
assumes that people infer their attitudes from their behavior
What is self-determination theory?
when an intrinsically motivated task is suddenly rewarded, the person will lose their intrinsic motivation
What is impression management theory?
says that attitude change is presenting for others.
- prob. with this theory is that there are attitude changes that take place in private
What is the elaboration likelihood model?
says that persuasin can occur in two ways:
central route - rational process, pros v. cons
peripheral route - emotional engagement
Persuasion: reason v. emotion
Reason should be used for an educated and interested audience
Emotion should be used for an uneducated, uninterested audience
Self concept in:
Cognitive Perspective
Self-concept formed of/by beliefs, expectations, perceptions, thoughts
- social identity - an identity based on socialization, ex. peers, family, coworkers
Self concept in:
Psychoanalytic perspective
- strives for "unified self"
- if info doesn't fit w/our working self-concept, ego uses defense mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms
1) repression
2) suppression
3) denial
4) reaction formation
5) rationalization
6) displacement
7) projection
Self concept in:
Humanistic perspective
Congruence - self-concept that is accurate
Incongruence - inaccurate self-concept
(with congruence is comfort)
- an Accurate self-concept is composed of the Ideal, Actual, and Perceived self-concept - the greater overlap, the greater happiness
Self-concept and:
Conditions of Worth, and Maslow's Needs
- Conditions of worth are used to identify selves; ex: material gods, prestigious jobs, should strive for "unconditional positive regard"
- Maslow's needs - when we reach self-actualization, we're a fully-functioning human being, with a true self-concept
Self concept and:
Johari Window
Known to self and others - open
Known to self, unknown to others - hidden
Unknown to self, known to others - blind
Unknown to self and others - unknown
Assimilation vs. Accomodation
Assimilation - making new info fit into a schema

Accomodation - makes a new rule, alters existing schemas, promotes true learning, growth, and change
Sex
maleness or femaleness as determined by genetic factors present at conception that result in anatomical and physiological differences
Gender
attribues, behaviors, personality characteristics and experiences associated with a person's biological sex in a given culture; can be based on biology, learning, or a combination of the two.
Androgyny
having both traditional masculine and traditional feminine characteristics
Prejudice
a prejudgment, mixture of beliefs and feelings
- implicity - we're unaware of our prejudices
- explicity - expressed prejudice
- modern prejudice - expressed prejudice in in-groups
- tokenism - a trivial positive act towards a member of a minority group, to "those" people
Stereotype
beliefs to the effect that all members of specific social groups share certain traits or characteristics; a schema
Discrimination
negative differential behavior against a person or a group
Formation of stereotypes in:
Classical conditioning and second order conditioning
Classical: little Albert and white bunnies
Second Order: anotehr stimulus that has been conditioned to a lesser degree; little Albert and men w/blue suits
Formation of stereotypes in:
Instrumental Conditioning
rewards for statements like "all skinny people are anorexic"
How/why are stereotypes formed?
1) ignorance
2) ethnocentrism
3) classical conditioning
4) second order conditioning
5) operant/instrumental conditioning
6) social learning
7) realistic conflict theory
8) social categorization
9) fundamental attribution error
10) illusory correlations
Stereotypes threat
- when stereotyped groups known the stereotype
- when they're put in a situation that could confirm the stereotype, they become anxious
- anxiety interferes with optimal functioning, stereotype is often confirmed
Ethnocentrism
tendency to evaluate people into out-groups from the viewpoint of one's in-group.
Realistic Conflict Theory
when resources are scarce, people become aggressive/competitive towards thsoe who have what we want, we develop stereotypes
Social categorization and Illusory correlations
Soc. categ. - in groups v. out groups
Ill. Correl. - illusion of out-group homogeneity and in group differentiation
Ultimate Attribution Error
assocating positive qualities to in-group and dismissing negatives to out-groups
Contact and extended contact hypothesis
contact hypothesis - increased contact between members of various social groups can be effective in reducing prejudice between them

extended contact - somebody else's positive experience w/out group members can help reduce prejudice
Prejudice and Parenting
1) expose children to people from "all walks of life"
2) promote self worth and importance of who they are
3) promote feelings for others
4) promote similarities between groups