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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The study of human development is empirical, meaning that it is:
Based on: data, many experiences, demonstrations, and facts
To understand levels of human development, Urie Bronfenbrenner advocated a(n):
Ecological Systems Approach
How human development should be studied with the person considered in all contexts and interactions that constitute a life
Ecological Systems Approach
Within the ecological-systems approach, the customs of the society, as well as the economic and political philosophies of the nation, are all a part of the:
A manner of studying human development that takes into account every moment of life is referred to as the:
Dynamic-Systems Theory
The notion that development involves gains and losses that do not always occur in a straight line exemplifies the following characteristic of the life-span approach.
The notion that a small change has a large potential power is referred to as the:
Butterfly Effect
When people belong to different cohorts, they differ in:
Dora, who is 75 years old, disagrees completely with her teenage granddaughter about the proper role of women. Their arguments are most likely to arise from differences in which context?
An individual's socioeconomic status includes:
place of residence
The values, assumptions, customs, clothing, technologies, and art that a group of people have developed over the years as a design for living are referred to as their:
Many assumptions about how things “should be,” such as that the husband should be the major wage earner in a married relationship, are:
Social Construction
The study of human development is often divided into three domains:
The notion of plasticity refers to the:
Human traits can be molded
When we replicate a study, we:
Use similar procedures with different participants
In cross-sectional research on development, each of the groups studied is of a different:
Age group
Identify a problem associated with cross-sectional research:
Historical change affect different cohorts
A researcher who tests the same individuals over thirty years, when they are 10, 20, 30, and 40 years old, is conducting:
Longitudinal Research
Unlike other types of research, a cross-sequential design allows researchers to:
Study groups of people of different ages, then follow them through the years
A systematic set of principles and generalizations that provides a framework for understanding and examining how and why people change as they get older is referred to as a(n):
Developmental Theory
Some theories are called grand theories because they:
Describe universal procedures and development throughout the entire lifespan
According to psychoanalytic theories, human development is mainly determined by:
The unconscious
(Hidden from awareness)
Unlike Freud, Erikson's psychosocial theory emphasizes:
Family and culture, not sexual urges
In classical conditioning, an organism learns:
to respond to neutral stimulus
Social learning theory emphasizes learning through:
observing others without personally experiencing any reinforcement
Cognitive theory focuses on:
the structure and development through processes
The central thesis of sociocultural theory is that human development is the result of a dynamic interaction between developing persons and their:
Surrounding Society
Vygotsky was particularly interested in the development of:
Mentally and Physically disabled children
According to sociocultural theory, the zone of proximal development refers to the skills that:
The learner is close to aquiring the skills but cannot yet master them without help.
Vygotsky's theory has been criticized for:
overlooking developmental processes that are not primarily social
The newest developmental theory, the epigenetic theory, emphasizes:
that genes interact with environment to allow development
The study of patterns of animal behavior, particularly as the behavior relates to evolution, is referred to as:
Selective Adaptation
Molecules of DNA are referred to as:
The genetic code directs the synthesis of hundreds of different kinds of:
Full set of instructions to make an individual member of a certain species
An organism's entire genetic inheritance is referred to as its:
A person's sex is determined by:
23rd pair (XX or XY)
The chromosomal make-up of a normal male is ______; the chromosomal make-up of a normal female is ______.
Male XY
Female XX
An allele is:
Slight variation of a particular gene
The observable characteristics of a person, including appearance, personality, intelligence, and all other traits
Phenotype is a result of:
Amplified Genotype
Approximately 99 percent of human genes are also present in other creatures. Given the percentage of genes we share with cats, for example, why are we so different from them?
Regulator genes-
influence thousands of other genes
The difference between additive and nonadditive genetic patterns is whether:
the dominant gene is more influential than recessive gene
A gene is recessive when:
Child receives x-linked gene from the mother
Since 1980, triplet births have increased by 500 percent. This large increase in multiple births may be attributed to:
Assisted Reproductive Technology
Which vitamin deficiency causes vision problems in children?
Vitamin A
Chromosomal abnormalities occur when a zygote's cells have:
More or less than 46 chromosomes
Between ages 20 and 50, a woman's chances of conceiving a fetus with Down syndrome:
20 = 1/800
39 = 1/67
44 = 1/16
A condition in which an individual has a mixture of cells, some normal and some with an incorrect number of chromosomes, is referred to as being:
About how many newborns have 45, 47, or more chromosomes?
an illness caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes.
A genetic disorder
The Period the fetus lasts:
9th week until birth
The fragile and tiny cell mass that is composed of cells from the duplicated, divided, and differentiated zygote is called:
By one week after conception, the multiplying cells have divided into outer cells enclosing a mass of inner cells. The inner cells will become the:
Nucleus to become the embryo
When the blastocyst separates into two distinct masses approximately a week after conception, the masses will become the:
Which statistic accurately reflects the vulnerability of prenatal development?
Low weight
The first organ system that shows any sign of activity is the:
Cardiovascular System
What begins to develop last during prenatal development?
By the eighth week after conception, the embryo has all of the basic organs and body parts of a human being, with the exception of sex organs. The embryo is:
With excellent medical care, a fetus can survive if it is born as early as:
7th Month
The critical factor in attaining the age of viability is:
22 Weeks
Any environmental agent that interupts development (alcohol, drugs, chemicals)
Teratogens that harm the prenatal brain are called ______ teratogens, because they can make the child hyperactive, antisocial, or learning disabled.
Behavioral Tetrogen
Monique contracted rubella early in her pregnancy. Damage is most likely to affect the embryo's:
During prenatal development, a particular organ or body part is most vulnerable to exposure to teratogens during the:
Critical Period
Some teratogens are harmless until they reach a certain level of exposure; they then become dangerous, thus demonstrating the:
Threshold Effect
A cluster of birth defects, including abnormal facial characteristics, slow physical growth, and retarded mental development is associated most closely with which of the following?
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
A breech baby is:
Baby has feet down
In a first birth, the average length of active labor is:
12 hours
The five characteristics that are evaluated in the Apgar are:
Heart Rate
Muscle Tone
Respiratory Effect
The country with the highest percent of cesarean deliveries is:
Anoxia refers to:
Lack of oxygen
A condition characterized by difficulties in movement and speech that results from genetic vulnerability and anoxia during birth is:
Cerebral Pasly
The international definition for low birthweight is weighing less than:
5.5 lbs
Babies considered small for their gestational age (SGA):
5 lbs on time
Infants born more than three weeks early are called:
Preterm Birth
Identify the psychoactive drug that slows fetal growth the most:
Margie gave birth to a 3 pound baby when she was 15 years old. The most likely reason for a teenager having a low birthweight baby is:
Kyoto's daughter is five days old. Kyoto is feeling sad and inadequate. She may be experiencing:
Postpartum Depression