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45 Cards in this Set

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Number of Chromosomes that the sperm and egg contain
46 total, 23 from the father and 23 from the mother
Define Mutations and know what purpose they serve
Random error in gene replication that leads to a change. Helps support the theory of natural selection
According to evolutionary psychologists, what promotes reproductive success?
Behaviors, emotions, and fears. Natural selection
Identical Twins Vs. Fraternal Twins
Identical twins develop from the a single fertilized egg that splits in 2. Fraternal twins develop from seperate fertilized eggs and share fetal environment.
Define Teratogen
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
What do developmental psychologists study?
Physical, cognitive, and social changes throughout the human life cycle.
What is temperment?
A persons characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
Define Gender Roles
expected behavior for males and females
Define Roles
expectation about social position and behavior in those positions
Define Gender
Masculine or Feminine
What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?
FAS- Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children cause by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticable facial misproportions
What is the rooting reflex and how can you tell if a child has or does it?
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth and search for the nipple.
Define Habituation
Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
Define Maturation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience.
Define Schema
A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
Define Assimulation
Interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas.
Define accommodation
adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
What contributes to children not remembering experiences before the age of 3?
"Infantile Amnesia"
When do the major organs bein to grow and develop? At what stage of the prenatal development?
The embryonic (embryo) stage...about 2 weeks to 6 weeks.
Who was Jean Piaget and what is he known for?
French developmental psychologist in the 1920's. Known for studying children's developmental processes in their intelligence functions. Piaget's stages of Cognitive Development.
What are Piaget's four stages of Cognitive Development? (Sensorimotor stage)
Birth-2 years old. Child builds concepts about reality and how it works through physical interaction. Deals with object permanence and separation anxiety
What are Piaget's four stages of Cognitive Development? (Preoperational stage)
2-7 years old, needs physical situations because the child is unable to conceptualize abstractly yet. Deals with conservation, egocentrism, and theory of mind
What are Piaget's four stages of Cognitive Development? (Concrete Operations)
Ages 7-11, Child starts to conceptualize, creating logical structures that explain his or her physical experiences based upon the physical experience. Deals with Abstract problem solving
What are Piaget's four stages of Cognitive Development? (Formal operations)
Ages 11-15, Child's cognitive structures are like those of an asult and include conceptual reasoning. Deals with Hypothetical problem solving and deducing consequences.
Define Egocentrism
refers to Piaget's theory, the pre-operational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
Define Attachment
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closesness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
What is stranger anxiety?
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning around 8 months of age.
Define imprinting
The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
What are the major styles of parenting and what are the characteristics?
Authoritarian: impose rules and expect obedience.
Permissive: submit to their children's desires, make few demands, and use little punishment.
Authoritative: Both demanding and responsive, exert control by setting rules and enforcing rules, but explains their reasons.
What is adolesence and when does it begin and end?
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence. Begins with puberty (11 for girls, 13 for boys), they grow out of the adolesent stage at about 25.
What are newborns visually more attracted to look at?
Faces, bright colors and shapes....lights
What affects does the mother's cigarette smoking have on the developments of the baby?
Fetus recieves fewer nutrients and may be born underweight and at risk for various problems.
When does sexual maturation begin and what are the primary and secondary sex characteristics for both males and females?
primary- reproductive oragans and external genitalia develop dramatically at puberty. secondary - breats and hips in girls; facial hair and deepened voice in boys; pubic and underarm hair in both sexes.
Who is Kolburg, and what theory did he study and develop?
Moral reasoning, "moral ladders"; Preconvential stage
(before age 9)
, convential stage (early adolecense to adult) , and postconventional stage (abstract reasoning age)
What are Erik Erikson's stages of development and what is an individual supposed to accomplish at each stage?
Trust vs Mistrust (birth to 1 year), Autonomy vs. Shame (1-2)
Initiative vs. Guilt (2-5
Competence vs Inferiority (6- puberty)
Identity vs Role (teen to 20's)
Intimacy vs isolation (20's to 40's)
Generativity vs stagnation (20's to 60's)
integrity vs despair (60's +)
What disease is commonly associated with Dementia
Alzhiemers disease
When are men marrying today and when are women marrying today and how is it different?
????
Define Crystallized Intelligence
One's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
Define Fluid Intelligence
On'es ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
Define Menopause
Ending of the menstrual cycle
When does an infant know its mother's voice?
here the muffled voice at 6 months conception...fully recognize mothers right after birth
Define Role Identity
one's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidfy a sense of self by testing and intergrating various roles
Define Norms
What is culturally acceptable
Define Sex
??
Define culture
Everything around you, the way of life, beliefs, values, and behaviors.