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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Who described consciousness as a "stream" or "river"
William James
Personal awareness of mental activities, internal sensations, and the external environment
consciousness
A cycle or rhythm that is roughly 24 hourse long; the cyclical daily fluctuations in biological and psychological processes
circadian rythm
A cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus in the brain that governs the timing of circadian rhythm
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
A hormone manufactured by the pineal gland that produces sleepiness
melatonin
An instrument that uses elctrodes placed on the scalp to measure and record brain's external activity
electroencephalograph
The graphic record of brain activity produced by an electroencephalograph
EEG
Type of sleep during which rapid eye movements (REM) and dreaming usually occur and voluntary muscle activity is suppressed
REM sleep
Quiet, typically dreamless sleep in which rapid eye movements are absent; divided into four stages
NREM sleep
Brain-wave patter associated with alert wakefulness
beta brain waves
brain-wave pattern associated with relaxed wakefulness and drowsiness
alpha brain waves
Vivid sensory phenomena that occur during onset of sleep. occurs during transisition from wakefulness to light sleep.
hypnagogic hallucinations
short bursts of brain activity that characterize stage @ NREM sleep
sleep spindles
Single but large high-voltage spike of brain activity that characterizes stage 2 NREM sleep
K complex
a temporary condition in which a person is unable to move upon awakening in the morning or during the night.
sleep paralysis
A phenomenon in which a person who is deprived of REM sleep greatly increases the amount of time spent in REM sleep at the first oppurtunity to sleep uninterrupted
REM rebound
The view that sleep and dreaming are essiential to normal physical and mental functioning
restorative theory of sleep
The view that the unique sleep pattern of different animals are evolved over time to help promote survival and environmenatal adaption
adaptive theory of sleep
serious disturbances in the normal sleep pattern that interfere with daytime functioning and cause subjective distress
sleep disorders
a condition in which a person regularly experiances an inability to fall asleep, to stay asleep, or to feel adequetly rested by sleep.
insomnia
a condition in which unpleasent sensation in the lower legs are accompanied by an irresistible urge to move the legs, temporarily relieving the unpleasent sensation but disrupting sleep
restless leg syndrome (RLS)
a sleep disorder in which the person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep
sleep apnea
a sleep disturbance characterized by an episode of walking or performing other actions during stage # or stage 4 NREM sleep
sleepwalking
a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and brief lapses into sleep throughout the day
narcolepsy
a sudden loss of voluntary muscle strength and control that is usually triggered by an intense emotion
cataplexy
repetitive, bland, and uncreative ruminations about real-life events during sleep
sleep thinking
a storylike episode of unfolding mental imagery during sleep
dream
a category of depressant drugs that reduce anxiety and produce sleepiness
barbiturates
depressant drugs that relieve anxiety
tranquilizers
A category of psychoactive drugs that are chemically similar to morphine and have strong pain-relieving properties
opiates
a category of psychoactive drugs that increase brain activity, arouse behavior, and increase mental alertness
stimulants
a class of stimulant drugs that arouse the central nervouse system and suppress appetite
amphetamines
a stimulant drug derived drom the coca tree
coacine
a category of psychoactive drugs that create sensory and perceptual distortions, alter mood, and affect thinking
psychedelic drugs
a process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experiance
learning
The process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses
conditioning
Psychologists who used dogs to investagate the role of saliva in digestion
Ivan Pavlov
the basic learning process that involves repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a response-producing stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits the same response
classical conditioning
Th neutral stimulus that reflexively elicits a response without the need for proir learning
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
The unlearned, reflexive response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus
unconditioned response (UCR)
A formerly neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a reflexive response
conditioned stimulus (CS)
The learned, reflexive response to a conditioned stimulus
conditioned response (CR)
The basic learning process that involves changing the probaility that a response will be repeated by manipulating the consequences of that response
operant conditioning
The occurence of a stimulus or event following a response that increases the likelihood of that response being repeated
reinforcement
a situation in which a response is followed by the addition of a reinforcing stimulus, increasing the likelihood that the response will be repeated in similar situations
postive reinforcement
A stituation in which a response results in the removal of, avoidance of, or escape from a punishing stimulus, increasing the likelihood that the response will be repeated in similar situations
negative reinforcement
A stinulus or event that is naturally or inherently reinforcing for a given species, such as food, water, or other biological necessities
primary reinforcer
A stimulus or event that has acquired reinforcing value by being associated with a primary reinforcer
conditioned reinforcer
The phenomenon in which behaviors that are conditioned using partial reinforcement are more resisitant to extinction than behaviors that are conditioned using continuous reinforcement
partial reinforcement effect
The delivery of a reinforcer according to a present pattern based on the number of responses or the time interval between responses
schedule of reinforcement
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delievered after a fixed number or responses has occured
fixed-ratio (FR) schedule
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcement is delieverd after an average number of responses, which varies unpredictably from trial to trial
variable-ratio (VR) schedule
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delievered for the first response that occurs after a present time interval has elapsed
fixed-interval (FI)
a reinforcment schedule in which a reinforcer is deliever for the first repsonse that occurs after an average time interval, which varies unpredictably from trial to trial
variable-interval (VI) schedule