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25 Cards in this Set

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Psychology is defined as the scientific study of ___ and ___, and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state and the external environment.
Behavior and Mental Processes.
Scientific psychology differs from popular psychology in that it is based on ___ evidence.
Empirical.
___ is the ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgements on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence rather than emotion and anecdote.
Critical thinking.
Two of the eight guidelines for critical thinking are:
Any 2 of the following:
Ask questions,
Define your terms,
Examine the evidence,
Analyze assumptions and biases,
Avoid emotional reasoning,
Don't oversimplify,
Consider other interpretations, Tolerate uncertainty.
Early psychologists, like today's psychologists, wanted to describe, ___, understand, and ___ behavior in order to add to human knowledge and increase human happiness.
Predict, Modify.
William Wundt's favorite research method was___.
Trained introspection.
Titchener named this early approach ___.
Structuralism.
According to psychoanalysis, distress symptoms are due to ___.
Conflicts and traumas from early childhood.
The ___ perspective is related to Freud's theory of psychoanalysis.
Psychodynamic.
The five major current psychological perspectives are:
Biological, learning, cognitive, sociocultural, psychodynamic.
The ___ perspective is concerned with how the environment and experience affect a person's actions.
Learning.
Unlike behaviorists and psychoanalysts, humanists believe that human beings have___.
Free Will.
The ___ is one of the strongest forces in psychology today, and it has inspired an explosion of research on the working of the mind.
Cognitive.
The sociocultural perspective focuses on ___.
Social and cultural forces.
Within the sociocultural perspective, social psychologists focus on ___ while ___ psychologists emphasize how cultural rules and values affect people's development, behavior, and feelings.
Social rules and roles, groups, authority and how we are affected by other people; cultural.
Psychologists from the ___ movement have noted that many studies used only men as subject.
Feminist.
___ psychology is the generation of knowledge for its own sake; whereas ___ psychology is concerned with the practical uses of such knowledge.
Basic; Applied.
___ psychologists study behavior in the workplace, whereas ___ psychologists study principles that explain learning and look for ways to improve educational systems.
Industrial / Occupational; Educational.
Industrial / Occupational and Educational psychological specialities are considered ___ specialties.
Nonclinical.
Three examples of practice specialties in psychology are ___, ___, and ___.
Clinical psychology, counseling psychology, school psychology.
In the past, the focus of ___ psychologists was mainly on childhood, but many now study adolescence, young and middle adulthood, or old age.
Developmental.
To practice psychology, one must have a ___, and in almost all states, this requires a ___ degree.
License; Doctorate.
People often confuse clinical psychologists with ___, ___, or ___.
Psychotherapist, Psychoanalyst, Psychiatrist.
___ have a medical degree and may prescribe medication, whereas ___ are not required to have any degree at all since the term is not legally regulated.
Psychiatrists; Psychotherapists.
Other types of professionals who engage in mental-health fields include ___, ___, and ___.
Social Workers, School Counselors, Marriage, Family and Child Counselors.