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34 Cards in this Set

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Super Ego
In Freud’s theory, the region of the mind that compromises the ego ideal (what a person would ideally like to be) and the conscience (taught by parents and society).
Ego
In Freud’s theory, the region of the mind that seeks to satisfy instinctual needs in accordance with reality.
Id
In Freud’s theory, the region of the mind that is the source of a person’s instinctual energy and that works mainly on the pleasure of principle.
Unconscious
According to Freud, the level of the mind that consists of thoughts, urges, and memories that are not within a person’s awareness.
Preconscious
According to Freud, the level of the mind that contains those experiences of which a person is not currently conscious but may become so, with varying degrees of difficulty.
6. Conscious
According to Freud, the level of the mind that consists of those experiences that a person is aware of at any given time.
Early Childhood Experiences
The foundation of personality is shaped mostly by
Sexual and Aggressive
Punishment of a child’s ___ and ___ behaviors results in repression of at least part of these experiences and leads to psychological conflict.
Anxiety
Unconscious psychological conflict creates
10. Oral Stage
Freud’s first stage of personality development, from birth to about age 2, during which the instincts of the infant are focused on the mouth as the primary pleasure center.
Anal Stage
Freud’s second stage of personality development, from about age 2 to about age 3, during which children learn to control the immediate gratification they obtain through defecation and to become responsive to the demands of society.
Phallic Stage
Freud’s third stage of personality development, from about age 4 through age 7, during which children obtain gratification primarily from the genitals.
Latency Stage
Freud’s fourth stage of personality development, from about age 7 until puberty, during which sexual urges are inactive.
Genital Stage
Freud’s last stage of personality development, from the onset of puberty through adulthood, during which the sexual conflicts of a childhood resurface and are often resolved.
Oedipus Complex
A group of unconscious wishes to have sexual intercourse with the parent of the opposite sex and to kill or remove the parent of the same, which arise during Freud’s Phallic Stage and are ultimately resolved through identification with parent of the same sex.
Fixation
An excessive attachment to some person, object, or behavior that was appropriate only at an earlier stage of development.
Rationalization
Defense mechanism by which people reinterpret undesirable feelings or behaviors in terms that make them seem acceptable.
Repression
Defense mechanism by which anxiety-provoking thoughts and feelings are forced into the unconscious.
Regression
Defense mechanism by which a person is driven by anxiety to return to an earlier stage of psychosexual development.
Projection
Defense mechanism by which people attribute their own undesirable traits to others.
Denial
Defense Mechanism by which people refuse to accept reality or recognize the true source of anxiety.
Sublimation
Defense mechanism by which people redirect socially unacceptable impulses toward acceptable goals.
Reaction Formation
Defense mechanism by which people behave in such a way opposite to what their true feelings would dictate
Displacement
Defense mechanism by which people divert sexual or aggressive feelings for one person onto another person or thing.
Hypothesis
A tentative statement or idea expressing a relationship between events or variables that is to be evaluated in a research study.
Scientific Method
The technique used in psychology and other sciences to discover knowledge about human behavior and mental processes.
Experiment
A Procedure in which a researcher systematically manipulated and observes elements of a situation in order to test a hypothesis and try to establish a cause-and-effect relationship.
Dopamine
One of the monoamine neurotransmitters that plays a role in movement, thought processes, emotion, feelings of reward and pleasure, and several behavior problems.
Serotonin
One of the monoamine neurotransmitters that plays a role in sleep, mood, and appetite.
Endorphins
Neuropeptides that are produced naturally in the brain and the pituitary gland and exert effects similar to those of opiate drugs.
Norepinephrine
one of the monoamine neurotransmitters that plays a role in arousal reactions and possibly in hunger, eating, and sexual activity
Acetylcholine
An excitatory neurotransmitter that was the first to be identified and is the most well studied.
GABA
An important inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Serotonin, GABA, Dopamine
Has affect of inhibition