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132 Cards in this Set

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Selective attention
Giving priority to a particular incoming sensory message.
Closure
Gestalt term for the perceptual tendency to complete figures by closing or ignoring small gaps.
Continuity (continuation)
Perceptions tend toward simplicity and continuity.
Common region
Stimuli that are found within a common area tend to be seen as a group.
Perceptual set (perceptual expectancy)
A readiness to percieve in a particular manner, induced by strong expectations.
Limbic system
A system of interconnected structures in the forebrain that are closely associated with emotional response.
Hypothalamus (feeding, fleeing, fighting, f*cking)
A small area at the base of the brain that regulates many aspects of motivation and emotion, especially hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior.
Prefrontal cortex
Executive functions. Planning, and decision making.
Association areas
Neural nets - community of neurons that function together. The highest levels of mental function take place within the association areas.
Plasticity
The brains capacity for revising its organization.
Autonomic nervous system
The neural system that connects the brain with the internal organs and glands.
Sympathetic system
A branch of the autonomic system responsible for arousing and activating the body at times of stress.
Parasympathetic system
A branch of the autonomic system responsible for quieting the body and conserving energy.
Central nervous system
The brain and spinal cord.
Neurons
Individual nerve cells. Basic building blocks of a nervous system.
Neurotransmitters
Any number of chemical substances secreted by neurons that alter activity in other neurons.
Classical conditioning

(respondent conditioning)
Basic form of learning in which existing reflex responses come to be elicited by new stimuli
Ivan Pavlov
Russian physiologist, observed classical conditioning in the salivation of dogs.
John B. Watson
An American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism.
Unconditioned stimulus (US or UCS)
A stimulus innately capable of eliciting a response.
Unconditioned response (UR or UCR)
An innate reflex response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
A previously neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to evoke a response by being paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned response (CR)
A reflex response linked to a new stimulus through learning.
Stimulus generalization
The tendency to respond to stimuli similar to, but not identical to, a conditioned stimulus.
Expectancies (stimulus, organism, response)
An anticipation concerning future events or relationships.
Conditioned emotional response
An emotional response that has been linked to a previously non-emotional stimulus by classical conditioning.
Biological predisposition
The presumed biological readiness of humans to learn certain skills, such as how to use language.
Operant conditioning
Learning based on the consequences of responding.
(Edward Thorndike's) Law of Effect
Responses that lead to desirable effects are repeated; those that produce undesirable results are not.
Positive Reinforcement
Occurs when a response is followed with a reward or other positive event.
Negative reinforcement
Occurs when a response is followed with an end to discomfort or with the removal of a negative state of affairs.
Continuous reinforcement
A schedule of reinforcement in which every correct response is followed by a reinforcer.
Partial reinforcement (intermittent reinforcement)
A pattern in which only some responses are reinforced.
Premack principle
Any high-frequency response can be used to reinforce a low-frequency response.
Shaping
Gradually molding responses to a final desired pattern.
Observational learning
Learning achieved by watching and imitating the actions of another or noting the consequences of those actions.
Albert Bandura
Canadian psychologist most famous for his work on social learning theory (or Social Cognitivism) and self efficacy.
Social learning theory
An approach that combines learning principles with cognitive processes (perception, thinking, anticipation), plus the effects of observational learning, to explain behavior.
Consciousness
A person's experience of mental awareness, including current sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings.
Circadian rhythms
Cyclical changes in bodily function and arousal that vary on a schedule approximating one 24-hour day.
Microsleep
A momentary shift in brainwave patterns to those of sleep.
Information processing
The changing of information in any manner detectable by an observer.
Wilhelm Wundt
1879; Introspection; First psychological laboratory.
Introspection
Looking inward.
Structuralism
School of thought concerned with analyzing experiences into basic building blocks.
Edward Tichener
Structuralism; [Picture - the structure of a tick.]
Functionalism
1890; School of psyc concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to environment.
Wiliam James
Functionalism; Wrote "The Principals of Psychology;"
Sigmund Freud
1900; Psychoanalysis: explores unconcious conflicts and emotional problems.
John B. Watson
1913; Behaviorism: study of overt observable behavior.
Gestalt Psychology
1929; Max Wertheimer; Studied thinking, learning, and perception as whole units.
Humanism
1940's; Carl Rogers; focuses on subjective human experience.
Psychology
Scientific study of behavior and mental processes. (SS of BuMP)
Research Areas in Psychology
Developmental, learning, personality, sensation and perception. (DEViL PERSON SiNS PERfectly)
Goals of Psychology
Describe, Understand, Predict, Control (Influence). (goals = DUP_C)
Five views of Behavior
(PBHBC - Psycho, Behave!Humans Be Cool)Psychodynamic, Behavioristic, Biopsychological, Cognitive.
Psychodynamic
Behavior is directed by forces within one's personality that are often hidden or unconcious.
*Humanistic
Behavior is guided by one's self-image by perceptions of the world and by needs for personal growth.
*Biopsychological
Human and animal behavior is the result of internal physical, chemical and biopsychological processes.
*Cognitive
Much human behavior can be understood in terms of the mental processing of information.
**Critical Thinking
(A_SCEC)An ability to analyze, synthesize, critique, evaluate, and compare information.
*Temperament
Physical core of personality, including emotional and perceptual sensitivity, energy levels, typical mood, irritability, and distractibility.
*Secure Attachment
Stable and positive emotional bond.
*Insecure avoidant attachment
Anxious emotional bond marked by tendancy to avoid reunion w/ parent or caregiver.
*Separation anxiety
Distress displayed by infants when they are separated from their parents or caregivers.
*Parenting styles
Authoritarian, Authoritative, Overly Permissive.
*Authoritarian Parents
Enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority.
*Overly Permissive
Give little guidance, allow too much freedom, or do not require the child to take responsibility.
*Authoritative
Supply firm and consistent guidance combined with love and affection.
*Jean Piaget
Believed all children pas through a series of distinct intellectual development.
**SCHEMA
Conceptual framework for organizing information.
*Humanistic
Behavior is guided by one's self-image by perceptions of the world and by needs for personal growth.
*Temperament
Physical core of personality, including emotional and perceptual sensitivity, energy levels, typical mood, irritability, and distractibility.
*Secure Attachment
Stable and positive emotional bond.
*Insecure avoidant attachment
Anxious emotional bond marked by tendancy to avoid reunion w/ parent or caregiver.
*Separation anxiety
Distress displayed by infants when tehy are separated from their parents or caregivers.
*Parenting styles
Authoritarian, Authoritative, Overly Permissive.
*Authoritarian Parents
Enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority.
Overly Permissive
Give little guidance, allow too much freedom, or do not require the child to take responsibility.
*Authoritative
Supply firm and consistent guidance combined with love and affection.
Jean Piaget
Believed all children pass through a series of distinct intellectual development.
**SCHEMA
Conceptual framework for organizing information.
*Behavioristic
Behavior is shaped and controlled by one's environment.
*Humanistic
Behavior is guided by one's self-image by perceptions of the world and by needs for personal growth.
*Temperament
Physical core of personality, including emotional and perceptual sensitivity, energy levels, typical mood, irritability, and distractibility.
*Secure Attachment
Stable and positive emotional bond.
Insecure avoidant attachment
Anxious emotional bond marked by tendancy to avoid reunion w/ parent or caregiver.
*Separation anxiety
Distress displayed by infants when tehy are separated from their parents or caregivers.
*Parenting styles
Authoritarian, Authoritative, Overly Permissive.
*Authoritarian Parents
Enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority.
*Overly Permissive
Give little guidance, allow too much freedo, or do not require the child to take responsibility.
Authoritative
Supply firm and consistent guidance combined with love and affection.
*Jean Piaget
Believed all children pass through a series of distinct intellectual development.
**SCHEMA
Conceptual framework for organizing information.
**Perceptual Set/Expectancy
A readiness to percieve in a particular manner, induced by strong expectations.
Consciousness
Consists of all sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings you are currently aware of.
Sleep stage 2
EEG includes sleep spindles.
Beta brain waves
Awake
Alpha brain waves
Drowsy
REM Sleep
Fast irregular EEG paterns. Characteristics of stage 1 sleep. Theta-like, vivd dreaming.
NREM Sleep
Characteristics of stages 2, 3, and 4. Increases after physical exertion.
Continuous reinforcement
Reinforcer follows every correct response.
Partial reinforcement
Portion of responses are rewarded.
Premack Principal
David Premack; High-rate behaviors can be used as rewards for low-rate behaviors; Anything done can serve as reinforcement.
Shaping
The gradual molding of responses to a desired pattern.
Observational Learning (Modeling)
1971; Albert Bandura; Acheived by watching and imitating the actions of another person.
Types of Discipline
Power assertion; Withdrawal of love; Management techniques
Power Assertion
The use of physical punishment to enforce child discipline.
withdrawal of love
Withholding affection to enforce child discipline.
Management techniques
Combine praise, recognition, approval, rules, reasoning, etc. to enforce child discipline.
Contiguity
Nearness in time and space. Often responsible for the perception that one thing has caused another.
Left Hemisphere
Language (speaking, writing, understanding). Math, judging time and rhythm. Broca's/Wernicke's Area.
Heredity
Nature; Genetics passed from parent to child. (Her mother nature.)
Teratogens
Anything capable of causing birth defects.
Random and Representative Samples
A small group that accurately reflects a larger population.
Correlation (Correlational study)
Positive and negative correlation. Coefficient correlation (-1.00 to +1.00) DOES NOT PROVE CAUSE AND EFFECT.
Hypothesis
A tentative explanation of an event or relationship.
Independent Variable
Condition being investigated as a possible cause of some change in behavior.
Dependent Variable
Condition being measured.
Placebo
Changes in one's behavior caused by belief one has taken a drug.
Biopsychosocial model
A way of looking at the mind and body of a patient as two important systems that are interlinked.
DSM-IV-TR
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders.
Maladaptive
Behavior making it difficult to adapt to the environment and demands of day-to-day life.
Major depression
a serious disorder marked by sadness, fatigue, changes in sleep patterns, difficulty thinking and concentrating, changes in appetite, feelings of dejection and hopelessness, and sometimes suicidal thoughts.
Dysthymia
a form of the mood disorder of depression characterised by a lack of enjoyment/pleasure in life that continues for at least six months. It differs from clinical depression in the severity of the symptoms.
Self-fulfilling prophecy
An expectation that prompts people to act in ways that make the expectation come true.
Somatoform disorder
The presence of physical symptoms that mimic disease or injury for which there is no identifiable physical cause.
Hypochondriasis
A preoccupation with minor bodily problems and the presence of illnesses that appear to be imaginary.
Pain disorder
Pain that has no identifiable physical cause and appears to be of psychological origin.
Conversion disorder
A symptom or disability that appears to be physical but that actually results from anxiety, stress, or emotional conflict.
Dissociative disorder
Temporary amnesia, multiple personality, or depersonalization.
Depersonalization
An alteration in the perception or experience of one's self.