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14 Cards in this Set

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what is a neuron?
a nerve cell, the basic building clock of the nervous system through which inf. in the form of neural impulses is transmitted
whay are the parts of a neuron?
-cell body, or soma, that houses the cell nucleus and carries out the metabolic work of the cell.
-axon, a long cable that conducts outgoing messages(neural impulses) to other neurons
fibers that receieve neural messages from other neurons
dendrites
swellings at the ends of the axon that release neurotransmitters, which are chemical messengers that carry the message to adjacent neutrons
terminal buttons
what are the types of neurons found in the nervous system?
-sensory neurons(carry info from sensory organs and internal bodily organs and tissues to the spinal cord and brain
-motor neutrons(carry messages from the central nervous system to the muscles and inner organs
-interneurons(connect neutrons w/ each other)
what are the types of cells found in the nervous system?
-neurons(the nerve cells that conduct neural impulses
-glial cells(support and nurish neurons)also form the myelin sheath that covers some axons and that speeds transmission of neural impulses
how is neural impulse generated and transmitted from one neutron to another?
neural impulses are electrochemical events. when a neuron is stimulated beyond a threshold level, there is a rapid shift in its polarity from a negative to a positive charge. this reversal of charge, called an action potential or neural impulse, is generated along the lengths of the axon to the terminal buttons
-when a neural impulse reaches the terminal buttons, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers that carry the message across the synapse to neighboring neurons. neurotransmitters can have either excitatory or inhibitory effects on the neurons @ which they dock
what roles do neurotransmitters play in psychological functioning?
-thinking and emotional response
-irregularities in the functioning of particular neurotransmitters are implicated in various disorders, including schizophrenia and deppresion
the part of the neuron that houses the cell nucleus is the _______
soma
the nervous system has 3 types of neurons: ______ neurons, which transmit sensory info to the spinal cord;_____neurons, which transmit commands to muscles thay control body movemements and to glands,causing them to release hormones; and _____which connect neurons to neurons
-sensory
-motor
-interneurons
true/false: myelin covers all parts of a neuron except the axon
false
-helps speed transmission of neural impulses
-formed by glial cells
-are white
myelin sheath
when a neuron is @ rest...
a greater concentration of sodium ions remains outside the nerve cell
the terminal buttons @ the end of the axon release _____that carry the signal across the synapse and dock @ receptor sites on the receiving neuron
neurotransmitters