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45 Cards in this Set

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Psychology
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Socrates & Plato & Descartes
Importance of Mind
-mind is separate from body and continues after death
-born with knowledge
Aristotle
the soul is not separable from body
-knowledge is not pre-existing; instead it grows from experiences
John Locke
impact of environment on current life.
-Tabula Rasa: baby born with blank slate which is written on with experiences.
-Lead to Empiricism-knowledge originates in experience-science should involve observation
Wilhelm Wundt
Father of Psychology
-stimulus-how long it takes the brain to notice it.
Edward Titchner
Structuralism-basic components of conscious experiences using *Introspection*-show stimulus and ask how they feel.
william James
Functionalism-thoughts allow us to survive. behavior and mental experiences function to allow human and animals to adapt.
Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalysis-emphasize roles of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality.
-Behavior is motivated by sex and aggression.
-Childhood experiences are critical in the development of adult behavior.
Ivan Pavlov
Founder of *Behaviorism*
-studied associations between neutral stimuli and reflexive behavior
John Watson
Behavior rather than consciousness.
agreed with pavlov
B.F. Skinner
studied observable, measurable behavior.
reinforcement and punishment to shape behaviors.
Carl Rogers
*HUMANISTIC*
-focus of thinking
-emphasized conscious experiences
-Human potential for growth-positive attitude toward humanity
-importance of current environment and importance of meeting our needs for love and acceptance
Cognitive Perspective
people act because they think
-perception, memory and language
Cognitive Neuroscience
The study of the interaction of thought processes and brain function.
Evolutionary Perspective
principles of evolution explain psychological processes.
Charles Darwin-survival of the fittest/natural selection
Social-Cultural perspective
studies differences among people of different cultures in attitudes, values and beliefs.
-recognizing we have to think of things in terms of world culture
Hypothesis
a prediction or question to be tested
Operational Definition
measurable/observable terms-Skinner
Theory
integrates or summarizes a large number of findings
Naturalistic Observation
Observing people in their natural environment
Case study
intense, in-depth investigation of an individual or small group
Phineas Gage-pole through head
Survey
questionnaire or interview to evaluate opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of a group.
Correlational Study
study that measures how associated or related two factors are.
-Does not mean one causes the other-
Positive Correlation
both factors go up together or go down together
negative correlation
the factors go in opposite directions
Illusory Correlation
The perception of a relationship where none exists.
When we believe that there is a relationship, we notice and recall instances that confirm our belief and ignore other instances where it isn't true
Experimental method
used to demonstrate that changes in one variable produce an effect on another variable.
Independent Variable
the manipulated variable
Dependent Variable
the effect...the result of the manipulation
Random Assignment
--All participants have an equal chance of being assigned to any of the groups in the experiment
control group/condition
comparison group-not exposed to independent variable
Placebo Control group
a fake treatment provided to a group of subjects to compare the IV
Experimental Group
participants exposed to independent variable
expectancy/placebo effect
changes in behavior that occur because the subject believes changes should happen.
Double-Blind Study
subject and experimenter/observer don't know whether subject is receiving placebo or not.
-no observer bias
Practice Effect
Test at Beginning and test at end, scores go up-data looks like intervention worked
Hindsight Bias
tendency to exaggerate one's ability to predict a result after learning the outcome
Observer Bias
Error due to the personal expectations of the viewer. Expectations affect behavior--Rats--
Mode
occurs most often
Mean
Average
Median
Ordered Middle
Variability of Scores
Closer together is better
Standard Deviation
states how much scores vary around the mean score.
Statistical Significance
What is the likelihood that your result didn't occur by chance.
A-B-A design
Baseline (Do nothing and observe)-Treatment (intervention)-Baseline