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111 Cards in this Set

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What is psychology?
Psychology is the study of human behaviour, thought processes and emotions.
Why is psychology important in health care?
It can enhance therapeutic work, promote the health and well-being of patients (or clients) and carers, preserve ones personal sense of well-being, and help one work more effectively with colleagues in multiprofessional teams.
________, a French philosopher in the seventeenth century, proposed that body and mind could be understood independently of each other. This referreed to as ____-____ _______.
Descartes; mind-body dualism
According to __________, human beings are objects of nature, sharing common functions or attributes that can be studied in an objective, scientific way.
positivism
_____ recognized the need for a more scientific approach and set about developing a more systematic method of studying the minds of others, which he termed ______________.
Freud; psychoanalysis
Other researchers opted for laboratory-style experimentation to study behaviour change. This was termed ___________ __________ or____________.
behavioural psychology; behaviourism
____ ______ claimed that each human is a unique individual who can only be understood in his or her own terms.
Carl Rogers
__________ _____________ favoured an approach drawn from philosophy called 'existential phenomenology'.
Humanistic psychologists
_____________ is not concerned with the development of universal laws or theories, but with understanding personal or subjective experience. It formed the basis of __________ __________ which has proved very influential within the caring professions.
Phenomenolgy; humanistic psychology
______ _____________ recognized the need to interpret behaviour in its social context.
Social psychologists
The most prominent branch of academic psychology is now _________ _______.
cognitive science
One of the most influential aspects of cognitive science in the psychology of health is the development of a new discipline called _____________________. This seeks to understand the relationship between psychological factors and the physiological responses that can affect health and illness.
psychoneuroimmunology
Another new area of psychology of particular interest to the caring professions is _________ __________, which focuses on both the content and coherence of autobiographical memories.
narrative psychology
_________ _______ (also referred to as _________ __________): the study of _________ (mental processes) including memory, perception, information processing, psycholophysiology and psychoneuroimmunology.
Cognitive science; cognitive psychology; cognition
___________ __________ (based on ____________): the study of learning by observing the direct effects of external environmental stimuli on behaviour and behaviour change.
Behavioural psychology; behaviourism
_____________ __________ (developed from ______________): the study of the influence of childhood experiences on current psychological and emotional states.
Psychodynamic psychology; psychoanalysis
__________ __________: the subjective study of the human experience.
Humanistic psychology
______ __________: the study of human behaviour in social settings.
Social psychology
_________ __________ is concerned with though processes. It was traditionally based on experimental studies of memory, perception an, more recently, information processing.
Cognitive psychology
Psychologists working in the field of _____________________ are increasingly able to make direct links between psychosocial processes, immune function and health and illness.
psychoneuroimmunology
However, in the field of treatment, _____ ____ is best known for his theory of depression and the development of cognitive therapy as a treatment for depression.
Aaron Beck
____ ______, working on research into animal digestion, was the first to report a simple form of associative learning whch he termed _________ ____________.
Ivan Pavlov; classical conditioning
____ ______, often referred to as the father of behaviourism, went on to suggest that learning was the basic foundation of all human activity...He proposed that psychologists should concentrate only on observable behaviour.
John Watson
Behaviourism grew to greater prominence during the 1940s to 1970s with the work of _._. _______ on _______ ____________, which studied the effect of external stimuli on voluntary responses such as obtaining food.
B F Skinner; operant conditioning
What is determinism?
The assumption that human behaviour is determined by external forces.
An important aspect of psychology to emerge from behavioural psychology was social learning theory, developed by ______ _______.
Albert Bandura
Bandura observed that certain aspects of human learning could not be accounted for by ____________.
behaviourism
______ ________ ______ focuses particularly on the learning of skills and has formed the basis of social cognition, on which much of health psychology is based.
Social learning theory
_________ _________ _______ has emerged as one of the most successful treatments of choice for nonpsychotic disorders (those that do not involve disruption of rational thought processes).
Cognitive behaviour therapy
______________ was founded by _______ _____ as a 'scientific' way of understanding complex psychological problems.
Psychoanalysis; Sigmund Freud
What is the term for a physical illness that has a psychological cause?
psychogenic illness
What is the term for a physical illness that has a posychological component?
psychosomatic disorder
_____________ _____________ evolved from psychoanalysis under the influence of Melanie Klein and others.
Psychodynamic psychotherapy
__________ _____________ would argue that there is no single truth, no single 'right' way of doing things, and no 'one size fits all' treatment for emotional problems.
Humanistic psychologists
The main focus of humanistic psychology is on the individual's sense of self. ____ ______ is most commonly associated with this aspect of humanistic psychology.
Carl Rogers
Carl Rogers introduced the concept of ____-_____________ which he used to refer to an innate tendency that drives all individuals to achieve their full potential within the limits of environmental or situational constraints.
self-actualization
______ ____________ seek to explain how humans behave in certain social contexts and predict social influences on human thought and behaviour.
Social psychologists
____________ methods are usually designed to test a hypothesis or prediction, based on a theory.
Quantitative
____________ _______ require that psychological outcomes are measurable.
Quantitative methods
How can theory and research contribute to health and social care?
1. Appreciation of the notion that people's comprehension and needs vary. 2. Gain a better understanding of the communication process for an improved therapeutic relationship. 3. Identify factors that affect how people cope with acute and chronic illnesses, pain, loss, and the demands of everyday life. 4. Information regarding the factors that influence people to engage in health related illness behavior.
20th century: __________ states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge.
Positivism
_____________ was the method used to study the mind. (positivism)
Introspection
1870's: Sigmund Freud's ______________ is a psychology school of thought which states that unconscious motives govern behavior.
psychoanalysis
1900's: ___________ is the study of behavior change under controlled conditions.
Behaviorism
1950's (2nd half of the 20th century) and ____ ______' humanistic psychology.
Carl Rogers
_____________ formed the basis of humanistic psychology. _____________ is concerned with the understanding of personal or subjective experience.
Phenomenology; Phenomenology
20th century: ______ __________ interprets behavior in its social context.
Social psychology
1970 - 2000 (latter part of the 20th century): ________ __________ and _____________________ seek to understand the relationship between psychological factors and the physiological responses that can affect health and illness.
Cognitive psychology; psychoneuroimmunology
What are the 5 schools of thought in psychology?
1. Cognitive Psychology
2. Humanistic Psychology
3. Psychodynami Psychology
4. Behavioral Psychology
5. Social Psychology
What is a theory and what is its role in the realm of Psychology?
The purpose of scientific theory is not merely to explain what has happened in the past, but to predict and control what will happen in the future. Similarly, the main purpose of psychology is to be able to predict and control certain aspects of human beliefs and behaviour. CAUTION: Theories predict only what is likely to happen.
List the 3 different (quantitative) research methods.
1. Experimental Method
2. Survey Methods
3. Observation Methods
______ _______ use structured interviews or questionnaires as instruments to collect self-report data about such issues as health-related beliefs and behaviours.
Survey methods
Social psychologists and anthropologists use ___________ _______ to construct theories about how people behave in different situations.
observation methods
___________ _______ may be qualitative (recording the type of interactions and nature of responses) as well as quantitative.
Observation methods
___________ _______ usually seek to describe or explain phenomena, and may be used to generate new theory. They are therefore termed inductive methods.
Qualitative methods
___________ _______ often challenge existing assumptions and make a real contribution to our understanding of patients' needs, and the nature of patient and staff interactions.
Qualitative methods
________________ ________ _______ use qualitative interviews to understand the 'lived experience' of various aspects of life, including health and illness, without imposing any preconceived ideas.
Phenomenological research methods
____________ _____________ has become a popular qualitative method for understanding the patient experience of disease or illness.
Interpretive phenomenology
_________ ________ is a popular research method for understanding the influence of language on dialogue.
Discourse analysis
_________ ________ is used to investigate the structure as well as the content of people's stories about events in their lives.
Narrative analysis
___________ is derived from anthropology and is concerned with understanding and comparing different cultural groups using observation methods
Ethnography
Some psychologists tend to regard psychoanalysis as a _____________ because it has generated some complex theory that has been difficult to test.
pseudoscience
_________ is the gathering of information through the use of our senses.
Sensation
__________ the interpretation of the information gathered by the senses.
Perception
_______ ______ ______ (902) proposed the notion of 'The Looking Glass Self".
Charles Horton Cooley
___ _______ _____ ____:
* the concept of self develops through social interaction
* our sense of personal identity is a reflection of how we are regarded and responded to by other people
The Looking Glass Self
____ _________ (1954) and the ______ __________ ______ proposes that we construct our sense of self by making comparisons with important others.
- reference group
Leon Festinger; Social Comparison Theory
Self concept of ____ ______ is a mental representation of oneself.
self schema
______ _____ (1955) and the Personal Construct Theory states that we develop our sense of self when we organize the knowledge about ourselves into a series of dimensions called 'constructs'.
George Kelly
Personal Construct Theory
- a construct can be best understood in terms of a continuum
- according to this theory, _____________ ________ develop because of a discrepancy between our concept of the ideal self and our perceptions of the actual self
psychological problems
________ _________ ______ makes us realize and understand how distorted beliefs about the self can contribute to mental illness.
Personal Construct Theory
A recent development in psychology has been what is termed _________ __________, which is based on personal accounts of stories.
narrative psychology
What are the puposes of a self narrative?
1. to make sense of our life experiences
2. provides a sense of continuity over time
3. it justifies our actions and our existence
What are the advantages of a meaningful narrative?
1. may help improve one's sense of self worth
2. facilitates a sense of coherence
____ ______: reflects a critical personal evaluation of self worth.
Self esteem
________ _________ ______: Self Esteem reflects the degree of discrepancy between the ideal and actual self.
Personal Construct Theory
_____________ ______: Self Esteem is the result of attachment relationships formed early in life.
Psychodynamic Theory
______ ________ ______: Self Esteem reflects the extent to which an indvidual feels one's actions influence the world and how one is able to achieve his or her aims in life.
Social Learning Theory
A lot of emphasis is placed on ______ _____ = expects standards of belief or behavior determined by one's social or cultural reference group.
social norms
____ _____ and _____ ____ help determine one's self concept.
Body image; social role
What are the 3 components of a normal body image?
1. body reality
2. body ideal
3. body presentation
____ _______: physical structure of the individual body
body reality
____ _____: one's sense of the ideal self
body ideal
____ ____________: characteristic ways in which the body moves or functions in social situations, may include non verbal communication
body presentation
______ ____: the characteristic and expected social behavior of an individual
social role
The use of "_____" in defining one's social role is normative.
props
Advantages of 'props':
- they help sustain our roles and present the image we wish to portray
- Goffman termed this as __________ __________
impression management
What is the difficulty encountered as one's roles change?
Social roles are an integral part of our sense of self and enforced restrictions are an important source of loss of identity, resulting in psychological harm.
______ _______ (1963) introduced the concept of ______ which is a visible sign that distinguishes an individual or group.
Irving Goffman; stigma
List the 3 types of stigma.
1. Moral
2. Tribal
3. Physical
_____ behavior or attributes that violate cultural or social values
moral
______ ______ refers to marks or adornments that signal group membership or status.
Tribal stigma
________ ______: refers to alterations in the body of in bodily functions that mark people out from the rest.
Physical stigma
Which specific form of stigma is the most debilitating?
Facial disfigurement
_________ are subjective evaluations that predispose people to behave towards an object of person in a positive or negative way.
Attitudes
What are the 3 classes of responses under attitudes?
1. cognitive (beliefs about the object/person)
2. affective (a positive or negative evaluative feeling)
3. behavioral (actions directed at the object or person)
Stereotyping:
- is also referred to as "________"
- involves attaching attributes to an individual on the basis of group membership
labeling
the negative effects of stereotyping can lead to _________ and ______________
prejudice; discrimination
____________ may be incomplete and inaccurate beliefs that some people hold about groups of other people
stereotyping
_________ refers to the combination of negative beliefs towards an individual or group
prejudice
______________ refers to the negative behavior associated with prejudice
discrimination
___ ____-__________ ________ is a prediction that, in being made, actually causes itself to become true
the self-fulfilling prophecy
___________ ______ is the process by which people understand relationships between cause and effect and how they make judgements about responsibility and blame
Attribution Theory
__________ ______ is based on the belief that people have an intrinsic need to understand cause and effect relationships
Attribution Theory
__________ ______ makes us realize that there needs to be some way of deciding who or what was responsible for what occurred
Attribution Theory
What are the dimensions of causality?
1. locus: internal/external (self or other)
2. stability: stable/unstable (always or just on this occasion)
3. globality: global/specific (in all situations or just this one)
___________ ___________ _____ is a pervasive tendency to blame people for their own problems or mistakes rather than looking for situational causes.
Fundamental attribution error
______ are relatively stable set of intelligence characteristics that include patternes of thought, adjustment and behavior that are partly inherited, strongly influenced by experiences during childhood and to some extent modified through adult experiences.
Traits
The personality measure now in most common use in health psychology is the '___ ____',...
Big Five
List the Big Five.
1. neuroticism: anxious, tense, worrying, unstable
2. extroversion: active assertive, enthusiastic, outgoing, talkative
3. agreeableness: appreciative, forgiving, generous, kind, trusting
4. conscientiousness: efficient, organized, reliable, responsible, thorough
5. openness (or creativity): artistic, curious, imaginaive, insightful
________ vs. emotionally stable;
extrovert vs. _________;
_________ vs. antagonistic;
conscientious vs. ____________;
____ vs. closed.
neurotic; introvert; agreeable; disorganized; open