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25 Cards in this Set

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Biological Psychology
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior
Neruron
a nerve cell the basic block of the nervous system
Dendrites
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that recieve messages and conduct impulces towards the cell body
Axon
The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
Myelin Sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
Action Potential
A neural Impulse; a brief electrical chage that travels down the axon. Generated by the movement of positively charged ions in and out of the chanels of the axon's membrane
Threshold
the level of simulation required to trigger a neral impulse
Synapse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receving neuron. The tiny gap a this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
Neurotransmitters
Chemical messangers that transverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron rotratransmitters travel across the synaptic gap and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
Acetylcholine (ACh)
a neurotransmitter that is among its functions, triggers muscle contraction
Endorphins
"moprhine wihtin"- natural opiate like neurotransmitter linked to pain control and to pleasure
Nervous system
the body's speedy electrical communaication consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
Central Nervous System (CNS)
the brain and the spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system with the rest of the body
Nerves
neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, wich are apart of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with the muscles, glands and sense organs
Sensory neurons
neuorns that carry incoming information from the sence receptors to the central nervous system
Interneuron
Central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor out puts
Motor neurons
neurons that carry out going information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands
Somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system
Autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs.Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms
Sympathetic nervous system
the divison of the autonomaic nervous system that arouses the body, moblizing its energy in stressful situations
Parasympathetic Nervous System
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conservering its energy
reflex
a simple, autonomic, inborn response to a sensory simulus.
Neural networks
interconnected nural cells. with experience networks can learn, as feedback strengths or inhibit connections that produce certain results.
Endocrine Systems
the body's slow chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the boodstream