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39 Cards in this Set

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Core Value- Outline 1
Primacy of the Famliy; the family as an agent to provide
Types of Capital
Economic
Social
Personal
Economic Capital
Food, healthcare, housing, money, clothing, education (to some extent)
Median Household Income
$52,000
Federal Poverty Line
$20,000 family of four
$16,600 family of three
$13,00 family of two
Core Values- Outline 2
Work as a virtue
Autonomy of the individual
Income equity
Balancing productivity and compensation
Income Distribution in the United States-
HIstorical shifts
1947-1970: gap between poor and rich narrows due to the creation of SS, Welfare, min. wage, full employment, unions
1970- present: gap between poor and rich widening
2003-2004: top 1% of earners gained 17% while the other 99% went up 3%
Income Distribution in the U.S.
Shifts in Congruence Between Productivity and Income
Product output per worker has increased, but workers have seen little change in pay; the minimum wage hasn't changed since 1997 and therefore hasn't kept up with inflation; the U.S. is more concerned with curbing inflation than reaching full employment; shift from manufacturing to service jobs
Influences on Income Distribution
Taxes, minimum wage, tax deductions (EITC, children, charitable donations, losses from stock speculation, interest on house mortgage) death tax
Remedies for Inequity
TANF, SS, SSI, ETIC, food stamps
U.S. Official Poverty Line- Historical Development
Molly Orshanky, a worker of the Department of Agriculture, determined at below what amount she thought a family would not be able to live; she arrived at this figure by speculating the cost of food and multiplying it by 3 because she figured food represented a third of a family's budget
Number and Percentage of Children in the United States Below the Poverty Line
17% or 12 million
Changes in Child Poverty Over Time
Child poverty has increased since 2000 after nearly a decade of decline.
Variations in Child Poverty by State, Ethnicity and Race, and Child Age
D.C. is the worst with 30%; New Hampshire has the least with 7%; South is disproportionately poor; of top 10 extreme poverty states, it has 7 of them
Whites have the greatest number of poor, but blacks and latinos are disproportionately poor
Child Age- young children are disproportionately poor; 46% of children under six live in poverty
Notion of Near Poor
Twice the poverty line
$40,000 family of four
$33,200 family of three
$26,400 family of four
Number and Percentage of Near-Poor Children in U.S.
40% of children, 29 million
Poor Families- Reasons for Poverty
Parental Employment- 55% have at least one parent working full-time, year round; 19% have no parent working
Parental Education- 61% of poor parents have a high school diploma or less
Family Structure-
Governmental/Social Policies: Incentives and Disincentives to Work
EITC
Child care subsidies
Minimum wage- hasn't risen since 1997
TANF- Temporary Aid for Needy Families; provides monetary assistance for a limited time; parent has to be going to school or working; validity of program based on how the families are doing later in terms of self-suffiicency
PRWORA
required states to crackdown on fathers who did not make child support payments; states set "inadequacy levels"
Adult self sufficiency
7% if adults are not self-sufficient; 10% of them would be self-sufficientif they did not have children
Reasons for Decreasing Self-Sufficiency
Macro-Economic Forces- min. wage, lack of jobs, tax policy, service economy, outsourcing/globalization)
Demographic Forces- Women moving into the workforce, amount of young people seeking jobs, number of job seekers relative to number of jobs available
Personal Capital- education, skills, work history
Personal Capital
education, skills, work history, race, ethnicity- all influence job and potential earnings
Demographic Forces
Women moving into the workforce, amount of young people seeking jobs, number of job seekers relative to number of jobs available
Macro-Economic Forces
min. wage, lack of jobs, tax policy, service economy, outsourcing/globalization)
Why are there more poor children than poor adults?
Children and not distributed evenly
Age of parents at child bearing and child rearing- young workers with lower incomes have less working experience and earning potential
Single parenting- 55% divorced, 30% never married; 15% other
Lower income individuals have more children; poor families avg. 1.6 children; non-poor families average .9
Child bearing and child rearing choices (timing and number) personal choices about birth control, abstinence, kids as income sources, availability of birth control
Social/Governmental policies and cultural mores- sex ed., abstinence, availability of birth control
Child bearing and child rearing choices (timing and number)
personal choices about birth control, abstinence, kids as income sources, availability of birth control
Avg. no of children poor v. nonpoor
Lower income individuals have more children; poor families avg. 1.6 children; non-poor families average .9
Reasons for single parenting by percentage
55% divorced, 30% never married; 15% other
Young people, children, and earnings
young workers with lower incomes have less working experience and earning potential
Social/Government policies and cultural mores
sex ed., abstinence, availability of birth control
Problems with the Current Definitions of Poverty
Is absolute rather than relativistic
Does not include cash-transfers
Does not include child care costs
Does not take into account cost of insurance
Does not take into account geographic variation cost of living
Single v. Two-Parent Households and Poverty
55.7% of poor families are single-parent households; just 13.9% of nonpoor families with children have only one adult
"The Squeeze"
moms working more, supposedly spending more time with their children
Changes in Household Chores
Moms are doing about half as much work as they did in 1965; men are doing twice as much housework as they did in 1965; altogether, number of hours per week done by anyone in households has dropped from 36.5 hours to 28 hours
Changes in Childcare Within Families
Father today are spending about one more hour with their children than fathers in 1965 did; moms are spending slightly more time with their children today than in 1965.
Amount of People Working Non-Standard Hours
Working non-standard hours
Single Earner, child less than 5: 30%
Single Earner,child less than 14: 25%
Two Earners, child less than 5: 31%
Two Earners, child less than 14: 24.7%

Trends: two earner households work more non-standard shifts; parents with young children work more non-standard shifts
Health Consequences of Non-Standard Hours
Circadian rhythms thrown off affecting hormones, body temperature, sleep cycle; increased risk of cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disorders, and preterm or low-weight births
Effects of Non-Standard Work Hours on Marital Relationships
Greater conflict, less quality time together, divorce rate 6x higher amoung couples who have been married less than 5 years and the father works non-standard hours
Effects of Non-Standard Work Hours on Children
Increased parental stress; increased family conflict; poorer relationships with children; *can't eat dinner as a family