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116 Cards in this Set

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What is the inner lining of the uterus?
Endometrium
What is the tip of the uterus called?
Cervix
What is the outer and inner protective layer of the vagina called?
Labia majora and labia minora, respectively
What is the opening of the vagina?
Introitus
What does the areola do?
It maintains temperature and contracts when needed through breastfeeding.
What's the male organ that controls whether urine or sperm passes through?
Prostate
What are the 3 cycles of the menstrual cycle and what does each cycle do?
Menstrual Phase
- lasts 3-6 days
- Sloughing off and discharge of endometrium

Proliferate Phase
- approximately 10 days
- ovarian follicle matures and endometrium thickens

Luteal Phase
- 14 days
- Uterus preparing for possible implantation of fertilized ovum
What does the cerebral cortex and the limbic system do?
Cerebral Cortex: interpretation of sensory inputs and regulation of responses such as affecting arousal

Limbic System: emotion, motivation, memory, drive
What's the onset of the menstrual cycle called?
Meniarchy
What hormones are produced in women over their lifetime?
Estradiol when they're a child, estriol when they're pregnant, and estrone when they're in menopause
What is progesterone's main function in a woman's body?
Progesterone's main function is basically to prepare a woman's body for pregnancy and baby delivery.
What are the different models of the Sexual Response Cycles?
Masters and Johnson EPOR model, Kaplan's Model of Sexual Response, and Reed's ESP (Erotic Stimulus Pathway) Model
What phases does Kaplan's Model of Sexual Response include?
Desire, Excitement, Orgasm
What phases does Reed's ESP Model contain?
Seduction, Sensation, Surrender, Reflection
What's an example of a woman's orgasm and what types are there?
An example of a woman's orgasm is by Singer and Singer's model which include vulval (vaginal or clitoral), uterine, or both.
What's the membrane surrounding the egg called?
Zona Pellucida
What chemical is released from sperm that breaks the zona pellucida?
Aerosome
What's a monula during early fetal development?
It has 3-4 days clump of cells and is undifferentiated
What's a blastula during early fetal development?
It's a hollow center, contains fluid, and gets to the uterus.
What's a blastocyst during early fetal development?
Blastocyst: differentiated, planted into endometrium implantation
What is celibacy?
One expression of sexuality through abstinence.
What is autoerotic masturbation?
Stimulation of one's own genitals w/o requiring the participation of another person.
What is sexual arousal or orgasm during sleep called?
Dreamgasm or "wet dream"
What are the benefits of masturbation?
Pleasure, Tension/Anxiety reduction, relieves menstrual cramps, Exploring/discovering own sexuality, Can increase sexual orientation w/ partner
What are the negative attitudes toward masturbation?
- People don't tend to talk openly about masturbation and feel guilty about it.
- Historically associated w/ various maladies
- Has been considered a disease, sinful, unhealthy, and unacceptable
- Kellogg and Graham (food that prevents kids from masturbation 'cuz it's bland)
- Negative attitudes passed down to children
- Reputation that it is only for people who can't get "real" sex
Who masturbates?
- 60% males, 40% females
- 25% men and 10% women at least once a week
What are the masturbation techniques for females and males?
Females
- Lots of variation
- Finger(s), vibrator, water, etc., stimulation of clitoris or surrounding area
- Vaginal penetration
- Breast, anal stimulation

Males
- Rubbing and stroking of the shaft of the penis
- Less variable
- Scrotum, anal area
What are the stages of sex?
- Kissing & Touching
- Oral-genital stimulation
- Anal stimulation
- Vaginal intercourse
What is tribadism?
A lesbian technique where they rub their clitoris together.
What is fellatio?
A male receiving oral sex
What is cunnilingus?
A female receiving oral sex
What is Simultaneous(69)?
Where both a two partners are giving oral sex to each other at the same time.
What are the less common sexual behaviors?
These include fetishism, transvestism, and BDSM(bondage/discipline, dominance/submissive, sadism/masochism)
What's the difference between sadism and masochism?
Sadism is the person that enjoys giving pain and masochism is the person that enjoys receiving pain.
What does leather associate w/ in these sexual roles?
FAGGOTS
What happens over the lifespan of the child in terms of sex?
Before birth
- Erection in utero, even touching
- vaginal secretions

0-1 years
- genital response to touching, cuddling, bathing, nursing
- attachment and sensuality - helps children establish sexuality

2-7 years
- more deliberate genital touching
- more sexual interest, interested in people undressing

8-12 years
- masturbation, understanding of orgasm
- more sexual interest - sex play - in same sex or opposite
What are the different types of parenting style and what does each one mean?
Sex repressive
- Don't think about it, talk about it, or do it

Sex avoidance
- Healthy and natural, but we don't talk about it

Sex obsessive
- overwhelm w/ exposure, discuss own behavior

Sex expressive
- integrate sexuality in a balanced manner
What happens during adolescence?
Puberty, sexual activity including noncoital(not vaginal) and intercourse, sexual orientation, and the Adolescent Dilemma
What is the Adolescent Dilemma?
- Inundated w/ sexual images
- "Just say no" messages abound
What are spinsters and bachelors?
Spinster is the term for females who are single and bachelor is the term for males who are single.
What is cohabitation?
Cohabitation is living w/ your sexual partner.
How does marriage work in terms of sex?
Married couples on average have sex 7 times a month and encouraged to have sex or bear a child.
What is love?
Attraction, romance, passion, intimacy, commitment
What is the process of love?
Attraction - looking for love
Romance - falling in love
Sex - making love
Attachment - staying in love
What are some of the qualities that fall under attraction?
Youth, face, hair and skin color, body shape, status(usually for men), clothing
What categories fall under romance and what does each one mean?
Proximity
- Being near someone is necessary for familiarity to develop

Familiarity
- Having close knowledge and shared experiences w/ another person

Readiness
- Are you ready to fall in love?

Similarity
- We are generally attracted to people who share similar backgrounds, attitudes, values, personalities

Reciprocity
- Balanced give and take in a relationship

Speed of falling in love
- Gender differences
What is lust?
Intense sexual desire w/o love.
What are the differences in motivation for sex between males and females?
Males - rate physical pleasure

Females - affection/closeness(esp. young)
- physical pleasure (esp. older or after kids)
What are the different attachment styles?
Secure, clingy, skittish, fickle, casual, uninterested
There are different types of people that have sex. What are they called and what are their views on sex?
Procreationist - people that believe sex is for making babies

Recreationist - people that believe sex is for pleasure

Naturalist - people that are between procreationist and recreationist
What is the Error Management Theory for males and females?
Males
- Missed opportunity for sex
- Overestimate intent

Females
- Sex w/ wrong person
- Underestimate intent
How do you know if your relationship is good or bad?
If your good reasons don't outweigh your bad reasons 5 to 1, then there's a good chance the relationship won't last.

If the two argues for more than once a week, then the relationship won't last.
What are different ways of selling sex?
Through pornography and prostitution
What is prostitution and what are some views on prostitution?
Prostitution is the exchange of sexual services for money or other resources. It is illegal in the U.S. except for some counties in Nevada. Victorian viewed this better than masturbation and homosexuality. Decline in prostitution use since the 1950s. Clients are called "johns".
Describe several different female prostitutes and their location and benefits.
Off-street:
- Call-girls
- Outcall or incall
- Madam
- Best pay, lowest risk for arrest

Commercial location:
- Brothel, "massage parlor", "strip club"
- Management
- Moderate pay, some protection by employer

Street:
- Streetwalkers
- Public location
- Pimp
- Lowest pay, highest risk of arrest
Describe several different male prostitutes and their location and benefits.
Gigolo
- Call girl equivalent for women
Call boys
- Call girl equivalent for men
Hustlers
- Streetwalkers for men
Kept Boys
- Partially or fully supported by an older man
What are the motives for becoming a female or male prostitute?
Females
- Money
- Drugs
- Runaway
- Doesn't require standard job skills, flexible hours

Males
- Money
- Satisfying job(usually call boys)
- Ran away from/kicked out of home
What's the life of a typical female streetwalker?
- 4 clients per day, 4-5 days/week
- >$1000/week
- Performs: Fellatio, vaginal intercourse
- Sexual Pleasure?
- "Special" things like S/M
- Drug use - heroin, cocaine
What are the motives for using a prostitute?
- Variety or novelty
- Seeking acts as a regular partner won't perform
- Loneliness
- Avoiding the risk of rejection
- Feelings of anxiety of shame and urgency for sex
- Avoiding emotional involvement and/or commitment
- Confuse/curious about homosexuality
- Desire to degrade and humiliate women
What are the characteristics of a "john"?
- Male
- Older
- Military
- More sex partners
- Interest in a variety of sexual experiences
- High libido
- Normal ordinary men are clients
What is pornography?
Writing, pictures, etc. intended to arouse sexual desire
Describe each type of sexually explicit material.
Erotica
- artistic value, non-violent, non-sexist

Hardcore
- little plot, lots of exposed genitalia, Rated X

Softcore
- playboy, more plot, Rated R
Who is Robert Mapplethrope?
He's a photographer that had child nudity and sadism/masochism together, which was highly offensive.
What is obscenity?
Illegal sexually explicit materials
Definition
- Appealing to prurient(lustful) interests
- W/o redeeming social value
- Lacking serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value
- Based on local norms
Describe the different "Theories: Effects of Sexually Explicit Materials on Consumers".
Conservative
- threatens fundamental social institutions and religious values
- continued exposure would desensitize immoral values
- teach abstinence only in schools

Feminist
- offensive to women or prejudices against women

Liberal
- inherently harmless
- fantasies, art, source of stimulation
- educating, freedom of speech, liberating
What are the effects of exposure of sexually explicit materials?
Arousal
- Men and women get same amount watching softcore and hardcore
- Novelty is more exciting
- appreciate storyline in porn

Violence
- Sex offenders usually found w/ illegal porn
- Violent porn seems to increase aggression or feelings
Where do they make profits off sex?
Movies
- 30% of video rentals are X-rated
- >150 new titles per week
- Make millions of dollars for major hotel chains

Advertising
- Sexual imagery does sell products

Music
- Music videos - 75% have sexual content
- Lyrics
- Mood music

Television
- 90% of movies on TV

Internet
- 500+ mega porn sites
- Endless supply of sex
What is sexual coercion?
Non-consenting sexual behavior
Describe the different types of sexual coercion.
Frotteurism(mashing)
- Deliberate and persistent seeking of sexual excitement by touching and rubbing against people
- Almost always male

Exhibitionism(flashing)
- Compulsive public exposure of the genitals to a stranger for the purpose of achieving sexual arousal or gratification
- Disgust, shock, fear
- Almost always male

Voyeurism(peeping)
- Observing unsuspecting individuals, usually strangers, who are naked, undressing, or engaging in sexual activity
- Risk and sexual arousal
- Almost always male

Obscene phone calling
- Seeking sexual excitement by calling non-consenting people and making sexual remarks
- Silence, heavy breathing, threats, sexual language
- Almost always male
What are some characteristics of non-consenting sexual behavior perpetuators?
- Mostly male
- Childhood abuse or neglect
- Rigid gender-role stereotypes
- Interpersonal problems
What are some disorders of courtship?
- Location and appraisal of potential partner
- Voyeurism

- Pretactile interaction
- Exhibitionism, obscene phone calling

- Tactile interaction
- Frotteurism

- Genital union
- Rape
What is verbal sexual coercion and what categories fall under this?
- The use of words to influence or force an individual into unwanted sexual attention or behavior.
- The categories that fall under verbal sexual coercion are sexual harassment and verbal sexual pressure.
Describe what sexual harassment is and what it entails.
- Use of deliberate and repeated verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature that is considered unwelcome by the recipient.
- "Quid pro quo" or "hostile environment"
- Workplace, military, education
- Victim often blamed
What theories are there under sexual harassment?
Feminist Theory
- Male abuse of power

Evolutionary Theory
- Male power linked w/ sexuality
- If power does not lead to increased sex, may resort to harassment
What is verbal sexual pressure?
- Using manipulation or deceit to influence the recipient into unwanted sexual behavior.

- Pressuring, lying, threat of love withdrawal, bribery
What is rape?
The crime of forcing(or threaten to force) another person to submit to sex acts, especially intercourse w/o his/her consent. Kelly McGillis was a victim of rape in 1982.
What are some rape myths about women?
- Victims provoke rape
- Men cannot control their sexual urges
- False accusation
- Can be avoided
- Mean "yes" but say "no"
- Doesn't do any harm
- "Just world" belief
- Most committed by strangers
- Rape is primarily a sexual crime
- Rough treatment is a turnon
- All women want to be raped
What are the different types of rape?
Acquaintance
- 2 people who know each other
- 80%-90% of rapes in women
- Date - leaving person(threats)
- marital - sex in marriage is hard to touch

Stranger
- someone you don't know
- more violent

Statutory
- having sex w/ someone under 18 no matter it's consensual or not and whether you're a minor or not

Sexual assault
- anal penetration, use of objects, forcible oral
- doesn't have to be penile/vaginal penetration
What are some types or rape drugs?
- Alcohol
- Rohypnol - knocks them out
- roofies, roach, the forget-me-pill
- GHB - make forgetful, happy
- "G", liquid ecstasy, Gamma G
What are the motivation of rape?
Violence
- sadistic rape
- pre-planned, ritualistic, brutal-violent, psychopathic
- pleasure from pain of rape

Anger
- revenge for perceived mistreatment by women

Power
- desire to control and manipulate
- tend to be less violent than #1&2

Sexual gratification
- only use enough force to obtain cooperation
- less violent
- might be most common
What are some theories on rape?
Feminist
- male keeping women at an inferior position

Evolutionary
- anyway to pass on their genes

Social learning theory
- men learning various strategies to get sex

Narcissistic reactance
- reactance
- response to being deprived of something
- narcissism
- excessive self-love, decreased sympathy, exploitation of others, arrogance
What are the characteristics of a rapist?
- Self-centered
- Blame victims
- Misperceived cues
- Associate sex w/ aggression
- Low empathy
What is the benefit and cost of rape resistance?
Benefits - may reduce risk of rape
Cost - may increase risk of being physically injured

benefit > cost
What kind of problems do rape survivors have?
Physical
- bodily harm, STIs
Psychological
- retribution, not enough proof, embarassment, shame
- Rape Trauma Syndrome
- Acute phase - adjusting to trauma
- Reorganization phase - true depression, sexual disturbances, post traumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorders
What are some precautions of rape?
Stranger - keep vigilant, lock doors, don't hitchhike, shout if assaulted

Acquaintance - safe place for first date, own transportation, go dutch, avoid alcohol/drugs, know your own limits, be aware of dress/behaviors, trust your own intuitions, respond immediately w/ direct refusal
What is sexual abuse of children?
Any form of sexual contact b/t an adult and a child, w/ or w/o the use of force or physical threat even if the child cooperates.
- 25% girls, 10% boys
What is incest?
- Sexual contact b/t family members involving children.
- Father/stepfather - daughter very common
- Persuasion - psychological persuasion
- Education - responsible for sex ed.
- rewards - keeping it secret
- Mothers less likely to abuse but happens and socially more accepted
- Sibling incest is most common
What are pedophiles?
- Anyone over 16 who have persistent or recurrent sexual attraction to children
- Relationship w/ sex offenders
- Preferential vs. situational
What are some methods of child sexual abuse prevention?
- Education
- Support Systems
- Victims should NEVER be made to feel guilty about not doing something to stop the abuse.
What is Judaism?
- Belief in one transcendant God
- Teachings based on the Old Testament, Torah, Telmud, Kabbalah
- 3-4 different movements of Judaism in the U.S. different interpretation of Hebrew scriptures
- Marital sex - natural, sex considered to be expected
- Menstruation - no sex by Orthodox Jewish, ritual both after this
- Extramarital sex - condemned, men own wives
- Homosexuality - shouldn't engage in this type of behavior but no condemption
What is Christianity?
- Belief in a single God and the Son of God, Jesus
- Teachings of the Old and New Testament
- Many divisions
- Catholicism
- Protestantism
- Historically
- Pro-celibacy - even for marriage
- Women - feels strongly for religion
- Catholic
- Marital sex - good and moral if heterosexual and for procreation
- Other sex-related topics - condemn abortion, masturbation, homosexuals, contraceptions, technology for making babies
- Protestant
- Marital sex - not inferior to celibacy, procreation aspect
- Other sex-related topics - condemn many things like Catholics
What is Islam?
- Belief of Allah, the Almighty God
- Teachings based on Allah's communication to the prophet Muhammed(written down in Koran)
- Marital sex - highly valued and honored, women viewed as high sexual, oral and anal sex is permissable w/ consent w/ partner, women covered in public
- Pre- and extra-marital sex - definitely not allowed, guard women like property
- Other sex-related topics - condemn masturbation and homosexuals
What is Taoism?
- Belief in harmony w/ all nature
- Teachings based on the work of Lao-tzu
- Sex - part of nature and health, not sin or guilt
- Yin - earth, dark, receptive, female
- Yang - heaven, light, penetrating, male
- Aroused during sexual activity
- The more Yin a man can get, the better
What is Hinduism?
- Belief in falling a path to everlasting or eternal truth
- Teachings based on 4 ancient scriptures
- Sex
- Pleasure celebrated
- Children - ultimate goal (sons)
- Women should enjoy but more male based
- Kama Sutra
What is Buddhism?
- Belief of the possible achievement of enlightenment or nirvana
- Teachings based on the philosophy of Siddhartha and Hinduism
- Priests, monks, nuns - encouraged celibacy
- Other followers
- Sexual intercourse
- Other sex-related issues - almost everything is morally acceptable
What is tantra?
- Belief in the possible achievement of liberation from the limits of the individual self
- Teachings based on Hindu and Buddhists texts
- Sex is incorporated into the philosophy
- Use of sexual energy for liberation
- Sexual ecstasy
- Anatomy
- Ejaculation
- Orgasm
How does Judaism react to homosexuality?
- Orthodox
- Totally forbidden
- Conservative, Reform, Reconstructionist
- Welcome all sexual orientation
- Support laws that protect homosexuals
- Rabbis given the option to perform same sex ceremonies
How does Christianity react to homosexuals?
- Southern Baptist Convention
- Homosexuality condemned
- United Church of Christ
- Welcome all sexual orientation
How does Islam react to homosexuality?
- Islamic Society of North America
- Homosexuality is a moral disorder
- Homosexual could change to a heterosexual
- Homosexual Muslims
- Gay Muslim organizations are growing in numbers
What do politicians usually bring up under sexual issues?
- Homosexual rights
- Abortion
- AIDS
- Womans' rights
What is stem cell research?
- Cells that have the potential to develop into any type of cell in the body
- Sources of embryonic stem cells
- Research privately funded
What was Bush's decision for stem cell research?
Federal funds to be used for research on the existing embryonic stem cell lines "where a life-and-death decision has already been made"
What additions did they make under the AIDS research?
- Strengthening capacity for HIV/AIDS research in developing countries
- Developing and expanding collaborations w/ international research programs
- Increased awareness in women & ethnic groups
What policies did they make for breast implants?
- Silicone implants banned (except for clinical trials) in 1992
- Various health risks linked to implants
- Application filed by Inamed Corp to resume sales of silicone breast implants
What is the only state that prohibits second-parent adoption of homosexuals?
Florida
What is the history of homosexuals in the military?
1943
- Homosexuals excluded from serving in the military

1980
- Defense Dept. spent $500,000 to eject homosexuals from the military

2000
- "Don't ask, don't tell, don't harass"
What were some cases of sexual discrimination?
- Goal of advocates to add "affectional or sexual orientation" to the 1964 Civil Rights Act which bans discrimination on the basis of race, creed, color, and sex
- Cracker Barrel Restaurant Chain
- Boy Scouts
What are hate crimes?
- Criminal acts performed against people or property because of bias motivated by race, religion, and national origin
- Sexual orientation added to 22 states, gender identity in 7 states
- U.S. political asylum for persecution based on sexual orientation
What issues addressed ever since the AIDS epidemic?
- Increased discrimination against homosexuals
- Increased political involvement of homosexuals
- Changed the way we deal w/ sex in general
- Mandatory HIV testing? some countries require
- Mandatory partner notification?
- Cost of HIV drugs
What is the 1873 Comstock Law?
- Outlawed the importance and circulation of pornography
- Used to justify the confiscation of any contraceptive information or devices sent through the mail
Who was the leader of the struggle for free access to birth control?
Margaret Sanger
What was the 1936 U.S. Court of Appeals?
- Ruled that physicians were exempt from the Comstock Law's ban
When does life begin for early U.S., religious leaders, scientists, pro-choice, and pro-life?
Early U.S.
- Life begins when the woman begins to feel fetal movements

Religious leaders
- Life begins at conception

Scientists
- About the 30th week of pregnancy the fetus develops the brain wave activity needed to produce thought

Pro-Choice
- Women have the right to decide whether to have an abortion or not

Pro-life
- Life begins w/ conception, abortion is murder
How was the abortion legislation in the 1860s, 1973, 1992, 1993?
1860s
- Abortion became illegal
1973
- Roe vs. Wade
- Abortion during the first trimester legal assuming a licensed physician performs it
1992
- Freedom of Access the Clinic Entrances Act
- Federal Crime to attack abortion clinics and to assault, threaten, or obstruct the people who use them
1993
- Modification of Hyde Amendment
How does the abortion legislation look in the states?
- States have individual laws regarding later abortions and abortions in minors
- California
- Minors need written consent of one parent or legal guardian OR accepted petition from juvenile court
- looks like abortions after 20 weeks gestation not allowed
- can be granted abortion late term if mother's life is in danger
What types of sexual behavior needs to be regulated in consenting adults?
Gender differences - men prosecuted harder for sexual coercion

Obscenity laws - obscene acts

Fornification/adultery - women are looked down and prosecuted harder for this

Sodomy - anal and oral genital sex, used to prosecute homosexuals