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140 Cards in this Set

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Dreams were regarded as what at the beginning of the 20th Century
meaningless hallucinations
Freud studied hypnosis with whom
Jean Charcot, famous neurologist
Any mental imbalance that causes distress, but does not interfere with rational thought
Neurosis
Freud asserted that what are at the root of hysteria all neuroses, alienated him from many of his medical contemporaries
Sexual conflicts
Freud wrote which book, largely based on a study of his own dreams
The Interpretation of Dreams (1899)
Unconscious:
Composed of:
• Innate, instinctive material which has never been conscious • Additions which have been banished to the unconscious since they were consciously unacceptable

• The Id-- is the part of personality made up of unconscious energy that is focuses on fulfilling urges and desires.
Conscious: (smaller than Unconscious)
Composed of:
• Largely rational thoughts... because...
• This is what you’re aware of
• Unconscious influences have been already handled by the Superego (social
rules)
Superego
Composed of:
allows information/feelings from the purely “animal” Unconscious to filter into the
Conscious, given social rules
The Age of Enlightenment 1700s
?
The Industrial Revolution ~1750-1900
?
Manifest Content
• that part of the dream which one is able to consciously remember (visual, sensory, tangible details)
• “I saw... I felt... I touched...”
• possesses no meaning or significance since it is the disguised representation of latentcontent, i.e. there is no point to paying any attention to it at all!
Latent Content
• the truth underlying the dream
• unconscious wishes, fantasies, and desires that have been denied gratification • their outlet is to be expressed in a transformed way and eventually appear in unrecognizable fashion in the manifest content
Two Basic Human Drives:
Sex (Eros)
• The desire to mate and procreate

Death (Thanatos)
• The desire to harm ourselves (masochism) and others (sadism)
• highly irrational;
Wish Fulfillments
Early in his theorizing:
• All dreams are wish fulfillments
• predominantly repressed childhood sexuality

• Later: Dreams are attempts at wish fulfillments
Wish Fulfillments: Four DreamsTypes
?
?
Example: Frustration dreams of a masochist who gets off on being frustrated
• Example: Dreams of loved ones harmed consciously bother dreamer, but unconsciously
fulfill competitive or angry feelings
?
Cause: Dreamer wishes to be punished for conscious or unconscious desires (perhaps
masochism and/or guilt)
?
Cause: Censorship fails to handle the unconscious wish and the mind protects the dreamer
by waking them up
?
Dreamers who have suffered trauma seem to relive traumatic event over and over again in
dreams
• Noticed in WWI Veterans (Today this is called?)
• Cause: Mankind’s in-born “anxiety preparedness” had been overwhelmed and the
mind was repeating the event in hopes of “re-preparing”
?
Maintains boundaries between the conscious and the unconscious
?
A tool of the censor in order to carry out monitoring duties
Transform
unacceptable unconscious latent content into acceptable manifest content.
?
Processes involved: • : since the material of the latent content is always more extensive than that of
manifest content, dream work condenses the latent content into an unrecognizable new, or
manifest content. • : transforms and masks the dream’s true intent by attaching strong emotional
response to dream content of minor significance while the important content is virtually
ignored. This allows the objectionable idea to pass censorship.
Dream Production:
Creation of Pictorial Representations: sensory images are used as units of
communication.

An unconscious process.
Symbols in Dreams
• Images are representations of our deepest drives (sex, violence)
• Image has some characteristics in common with unconscious drive
For Freud most symbols had a sexual component -
• hair cutting, teeth falling out and baldness
• elongated or penetrating objects
• receptacles or something which is enclosing
• animals, landscape and children
• ladders and walking up and down steps
• playing with a child
?
the technique for interpretation
3 Basic Questions about Dreams
Dreams are basically meant to deceive the dreamer and
• People actively resist understanding dreams
• They can be interpreted by reversing the “dream-work” primarily
• Using technique of free association (best with someone else, but can be done alone if need be)
sex under the surface
Original love object is mom/breast
• near age 4, girls realize they have no penis
• develop
• Mother is blamed as cause for lack of penis; girl rejects mother
• girl’s self-esteem decreases
• ultimately causes women to seek men as primary objects of love
• “ ” and the wandering uterus (Hippocrates)
• In 1800s, hysteria includes somatic disorders (anxiety, numbness, hysterical blindness,
“attacks of the nerves”)
• May really be mental or medical disorders, but often appeared to be “faking it”
• Talking cures may have worked simply by helping women express their frustrations
An alternative conceptualization
Female sexuality-- threatening?
• Food for thought: females and choosing sexual partners
Trying to assess your degree of Repression and/or Resistance
•1. Dream is clear; dreamer accepts interpretations and supplies relevant associations
• 2.
2. Dreamer accepts interpretations only after some effort
• 3. Dreamer supplies relevant associations but is emotionally indifferent toward dream
• 4. There are numerous lengthy dreams, but associations are not coherent and dreams can’t be
placed in connection with daily life
• 5. Interpretation of the dream makes the dreamer more anxious or unsure of themselves
CARL GUSTAV JUNG (1875 – 1961)
Born in small village in Basel Switzerland

Strongly religious Protestant household; psychic family members
Did experimental studies on word association tests
– frequently encountered repression in the form of blocked or delayed
responses to emotionally significant stimulus
2 ?
Jungʼs Theory
Conceptualization of Personality:
Personal Conscious:
••
Personal Unconscious:
••
Collective Unconscious:
Jungʼs Theoretical Constructs
1. Self –
• A mysterious regulating center of the total psyche

• Needs the ego for its formation process
• Separate and independent of ego state, however expresses the unity of the personality as a whole
• is based on the merging of the many levels of the unconscious and
conscious mind
Jungʼs Theoretical Constructs
2. The Collective Unconscious
It contains archetypes, emotionally charged images and thought forms that have
universal meaning.
• Archetypes cause us to respond in certain ways to common human experiences.
• Mandala (“magic circle” in sanskrit).
3. Collective Unconscious: Archetypes
Jung: “The archetype is... an inherited tendency of the human mind to form
representations of mythological motifs-- representations that vary a great deal
without losing their basic pattern.”
• This idea emerged from working with patients

• Jung found an ancient papyrus text-- any guesses what it said?
Special Archetypal Structures
• Identity Structures
Ego –
• helps formation of the “I” or self
– Shadow – “ ”
• Represents unconscious elements that are poorly integrated into the
individualʼs consciousness
• Much psychotherapy work is to reintegrate portions of the shadow
with the ego
The Shadow
Governed by dark, primitive, instinctual drives (like Freudʼs id)--
• Childhood socialization: we are trained to hide this side of us, but it still exists
• The goal is to ultimately:
• It will act as a source of energy later in life because it can be channeled (not
avoided)
Archetypal Relational Structures
• Persona – Greek word for “mask”
Healthy ego can adopt appropriate personas
• Persona malfunctions occur when there is excessive, under-identification or
over-identification with the persona
• This is confusing “what we do” with “who we are”
• :
• clothing, external signs of recognition
• Dreams give info on how invested we are in our public selves
Anima/Animus
Qualities that are culturally defined as inappropriate to the sexual identity of the ego
• (men have feminine anima; females have male animus)
• Parents provide the original model for these images
• Often, individuals over- or under-identify with this part of themself
• hyper-masculinity; hyper-femininity
• Changes (hopefully) throughout lifespan;
• Affects quality of relationships: vs.
Individuation Process
Central concept in Jungian theory; becoming an individual
• Process of consciously attempting to develop the innate individual potentialities of
his/her psyche
• Basic evolutionary process of integrating the conscious and unconscious
• That means, integrating the various parts of the self (anima/animus, persona,
shadow, etc...)
• Life is a series of transformations that lead toward INDIVIDUATION
Individuation
Dreams serve as a tool to promote individuation process (teleological)
For some, modern psychotherapy has taken the place that religious tradition once
had in assisting in this process
“helping people find their own balanced wholeness”
Dream Symbols
Jung believed that dreams showed where the unconscious is leading the dreamer
Although he shared Freudʼs belief that symbols represent attempts to
satisfy frustrated instinctual impulses, this was a mere first level layer for
Jung
• He says dreams contain archetypal material, too.
• Act as messengers to carry messages from the instinctive to the rational
parts of the mind
• May represent areas in which:
Dream Symbols are:
an analogy of what is still consciously unknown to the dreamer,
• and is in the process of
• Symbols may consist of multiple layers
• Our job is to pick apart those layers
• Like with Freud, the ultimate goal is to make as much of our unconscious
conscious.
The Archetypal Figures
Jungʼ
The Self
The self is an archetype that represents the unification of the unconsciousness and consciousness of an individual. The creation of the self occurs through a process known as individuation, in which the various aspects of personality are integrated. Jung often represented the self as a circle, square or mandala.
The Shadow
The shadow is an archetype that consists of the sex and life instincts. The shadow exists as part of the unconscious mind and is composed of repressed ideas, weaknesses, desires, instincts and shortcomings. This archetype is often described as the darker side of the psyche, representing wildness, chaos and the unknown. These latent dispositions are present in all of us, Jung believed, although people sometimes deny this element of their own psyche and instead project it onto others.Jung suggested that the shadow can appear in dreams or visions and may take a variety of forms. It might appear as a snake, a monster, a demon, a dragon or some other dark, wild or exotic figure.
The Anima/Animus
The anima is a feminine image in the male psyche and the animus is a male image in the female psyche. The anima/animus represents the "true self" rather than the image we present to others and serves as the primary source of communication with the collective unconscious. The combination of the anima and animus is known as the syzygy, or the divine couple. The syzygy represents completion, unification and wholeness.
The Persona
The persona is how we present ourselves to the world. The word "persona" is derived from a Latin word that literally means "mask." It is not a literal mask, however. The persona represents all of the different social masks that we wear among different groups and situations. It acts to shield the ego from negative images. According to Jung, the persona may appear in dreams and take a number of different forms.
Dreams are continually compensating and complementing the egoʼs waking view of
reality.
the process by which the psyche attempts to gain balance by developing
an awareness of neglected aspects of the personality and striving for their
expression
• Ways in which dreams may be compensatory
– Compensate temporary distortions in ego
( )
– When ego is deviating from individuation
Dream structure-- things to think about:
“A dream is like a drama taking place on oneʼs interior stage”. It
contains:
• An opening scene where the setting, characters, and initial
situation of the main characters are introduced
• The development of a plot
• The emergence of a major conflict
• The response to the conflict by the main character
Story-like Dream Structure from literary scholarship:
a storyʼs resolution is called the
• The tension builds (rising action), intensifies in a single moment (climax),
then resolves (denouement).
• If it doesnʼt resolve, what does this possibly mean?
Dream Interpretation
Not to be confused with Freudian word or free association.
• Involves getting at the connected meanings around the core dream
image or themes
Three steps in amplification:
1. exploring the personal meanings attached to the dream
image and feelings this image evokes
2. exploration of the cultural meanings that the dreamerʼs ethnic
or societal group might link with that image
3. attempting to find the archetypal connections to the image
Objective and Subjective Interpretation
Objective: when a character in the dream is considered to
reflect a person in real life with whom the dreamer actually has
a relationship
• Subjective: when the dream character is considered to portray
some part of the dreamerʼs personality.
• Jung basically considers all dream work to be subjective, which
conceives of all the figures in the dream as personified features of
the dreamerʼs own personality.
• (You are everyone in your own dream.)
Lucid Dreaming
Similar to a guided relaxation.
• The dreamer enters a relaxed state, focusing attention on the dream
image,
• Dreamer observes how the form or appearance of the image gradually
changes. WHY?
• This must be done without intervention of the conscious mind.
• In other words, the subconscious mind must be the guiding force.
Formation of dreams
Internal – Psychological in nature
• Personal unconscious – thoughts, feelings, and experiences from daily
life
• Collective unconscious – archetypes of the persona, shadow, anima/
animus, self …
Function of dreams
To compensate for the imbalance of the conscious personality
• To provide visions of potentials and possibilities
• Overall function to promote
Interpretation of dreams
Dreams are a natural process and do NOT need to be interpreted to in
order to fulfill their function
• However, function is GREATLY ENHANCED by the practice of dream
interpretation
• Can be especially helpful in therapy
• Dreams can be a potent means of reconnecting the rational conscious
with the psychic depths we normally donʼt see or understand in ourselves
Jungʼs theories are ___________________–
The study of natural phenomena in terms of an overall purpose or design (in this
case - Individuation)
Jungʼs Principle of synchronicity-
Events that occur together but are not causally linked
• Some other order in the universe which develops parallel to the physical
world
Telepathy –
– Jung saw this as another possible dream-determinant
– Certain people are particularly sensitive to it
what in brainstem produce serotonin and norepinephrine which help keep parts of our brains active while we are awake.
neurons
Research suggests that what may build up in the blood and cause drowsiness; it is broken down as we
sleep.
adenosine
During sleep, we pass through five stages
Stages 1, 2, 3, 4, & REM (Rapid Eye Movement)
Stages cycle from stage 1 through REM, then back to 1...
Stage 1 Sleep
light sleep; easily awakened
slow eye movements
those awakened remember fragmented images
many experience sudden muscle jerks: hypnic myoclonia (often preceded by a feeling of falling)
Stage 2 Sleep
As we enter stage 2, brain waves slow and eye movements stop
There are occasional bursts of brain activity called sleep spindles
Stage 3 Sleep
Extremely slow brain waves (delta waves) appear
Delta waves are interspersed by occasional rapid bursts Delta waves are interspersed by occasional rapid bursts of waves
Getting harder to wake someone by this stage
Stage 4 Sleep
Brain produces delta waves almost exclusively
Hard to wake someone; stage 3 and 4 known as “deep sleep”
If awakened now, people are groggy and often disoriented
many children experience bed wetting, night terrors and sleepwalking during this stage
REM Sleep
Rapid Eye Movement Stage
Breathing becomes more rapid, shallow, and irregular
Eyes dart back and forth in various directions
Muscles are temporarily paralyzed
Heart rate increases, blood pressure rises
Males develop penile erections
If awakened, people often describe illogical and bizarre tales: dreams
Sleep Stages
First REM sleep occurs about 70-90 minutes after we sleep.
A complete sleep cycle can take between 90-110 minutes on average
First REM periods short, but increase in length as night goes on (deep sleep decreases)
By morning, people spend almost all their sleep in stages 1, 2 and REM
Sleep Stages
People awaked after more than a few minutes of sleep often experience amnesia of events just prior to sleep
This helps explain why people forget mid-night conversations or why we often don’t remember the alarm
ringing if we shut it off and fell back asleep
Influences on Sleep
Because wakefulness and sleep are regulated by neurotransmitters, foods and substances can affect sleep
considerably.
Caffeine, diet pills, and many decongestants stimulate part of the brain causing insomnia.
Antidepressants can suppress REM sleep for some people
Heavy smokers often sleep lightly and have reduced REM sleep (and often wake due to withdrawal)
What helps people fall into light sleep, but may rob them of REM sleep?
Alcohol helps people fall into light sleep,
but it robs them of much needed restorative deep sleep.
A “night cap” before bed is not really a good idea.
Also, REM sleep is often suppressed
In REM sleep, we also cannot do what with our our body temperatures,
regulate body temperature so
abnormally warm or cold temperatures can disrupt sleep
Interestingly--
if our REM sleep is disrupted one night, what happens?
our bodies don’t start the stages over the next night.
Instead, we start out in REM and stay in REM until we “catch up” on this stage.
Infants need approximately how much hours sleep/day
16
Adults need how much sleep?
7-8hrs/day is average; 5-10 the general range
What can produce a “sleep debt” that can lead to impaired motor skills and judgment
Sleep deprivation
Experts say that if you feel what during the day (even during boring activities) you’re not getting enough
sleep
During
If you fall asleep routinely within how much time of going to bed, you’re sleep deprived or might have a sleep disorder
five minutes
What are a mark of sleep deprivation
Microsleeps-- periods of short sleep in an otherwise awake person
Rats normally live 2-5 years; those deprived of REM lasted how long
Those deprived of all sleep how long
5 weeks; 3 weeks
In children and young adults, sleep coincides with the release of what?
growth hormone
Sleep deprived rats had what
lower than normal body temperature, and developed sores on their tails and paws
(probably from impaired immune systems)
What increases; “beauty sleep” is somewhat true because this is when the body does to repair itself
Protein synthesis
studies show that rats’ brain waves during sleep actually repeated from things they what during the day?
Learned; neural pathways growing?-- perhaps sleep serves to improve memory and cognitive function
We spend how much time dreaming a night?
We spend up to two hours a night dreaming.
Most what show signs of REM sleep, but reptiles and other cold-blooded animals do not
mammals and birds
What sleep stimulates regions of the brain responsible for learning and may help explain why infants spend so much time in REM
REM
Studies show people deprived of what cannot easily remember skills they had been taught during the day
REM
What begins with signals from the base of the brain called the pons
REM
REM signals travel to the thalamus which relays them to the what? (responsible for learning/thinking/organizing).
cerebral cortex
The what also sends signals to the spinal cord causing temporary muscle paralysis.
pons
If this what doesn’t occur as it should, someone may physically act out their dreams (REM sleep behavior
disorder).
paralysis
Some scientists believe dreams are the what's way of organizing and making sense of random signals during REM sleep
cortex’s
In short, the what is making meaning from the meaningless; it’s making a story from bits of unrelated “mental discharges” from our memory
cortex
Who was an early associate of Freud?
Alfred Adler
Adler developed which concept?
Individual Psychology
Individual Psychology does what?
personality can only be understood holistically
assumes all behavior has a purpose (goals)
behavior is driven by these goals
your goal is to be the best you, not what others expect of you
the conscious and unconscious are one (not two) spheres of mental functioning
Alfred Adle minimized the role of the what?
unconscious
(did not use dreams extensively in his clinical practice)
He believed who was too oriented toward the past?
Freud
What may lead to perfectionism?
?
What is an inferiority complex?
Heightened inability to deal with feelings of inadequacy
Pschopathological symptoms:
?
The desire to be “above” like a “real man”
?
Swiss psychoanalyst
with Freudian training
worked with Jung for 10 years.
Medard Boss
What is Existential Philosophy?
It loosely states that there is no meaning in the world except for the meaning man creates.
Medard Boss wrote which book ?
The Analysis of Dreams.
Boss takes a what approach to dreaming
phenomenological
Boss believed dreams were what and were meant to be look at.
real
Dreams were not what, but told about how we are right now
symbols
Boss rejected what and what
Freud's manifest/latent view, and Jung's amplification technique.
Dreams were a mirror of life or a what according to Boss
existential snapshot.
This snapshot did what
Posed the question about how the dreamer is facing the as yet.
Dreams about what could be.
Who was a German medical doctor with an existential and phenomenological approach to dreams and founded Gestalt Therapy
Fritz Perls
What means "whole" in German
Gestalt
Gestalt therapy does two things:
1) Focus on what the individual is avoiding
2) Discover what in awareness
Emotional Holes
In Gestalt Therapy, a dream is a projection of what
rejected parts of a personality
Gestalt therapy concentrates on the dream of what?
Experience
Some examples of emotional holes are?
Cliche Layer
Role Playing Layer
Neurotic Layer
Implosive Layer
Explosive Layer
Gestalt Dream work involves telling the dream in what tense
present
Gestalt Therapy may involve describing the aspects of the dream and experiencing those aspects as what?
attributes of the dream
Gestalt Therapy may involve actively play a dream out e.g. what
Dialog between two chairs.
In Gestalt Therapy the dreamer does what
take on the role of inanimate objects in the dream
Who pioneered the idea of focal conflict
Thomas French
What is focal conflict
A recent problem rising from difficulties in interpersonal relationships
Thomas French wrote which book about dreams
The Integrative Process In Dreams
Focal Conflict stirs up earlier problems in the dreamer's life causing what?
An elaborate network of related problems to represented in manifest content of dreams
The concept of letting your body interpret your dreams was pioneered by whom
Eugene Gendlin
Eugene Gendlin posed how many questions that the dreamer can ask with regard to any dream
16
Eugene Gendlin implied the dream does what when a kind of instinctual understanding is reached
Needs to feel or sense something with their body
Who wrote Working with Dreams and many other books?
Montague Ullman
What are the stages of process in Ullman's Dream Groups
Dreamer volunteers a dream. Group asks questions

Members interpret dream

Comments about feelings the may experience

Dialogue ensues

Dream synthesizes information
Who believed that the population at large could benefit from dream analysis as long as approach was non invasive?
Montague Ullman
Enantiodromia
compensation
Condensation
So much data, information is compressed
Displacement
Most important is least important
What is Thomas French's Central Idea
Focal Conflict
Focal Conflcit
The Central Conflict that keeps showing up in someone's life