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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
an amplified recording of waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
a series of x-ray photos taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body
CT(computed tomography)scan; aka cat scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
PET (positron emission tomography) scan
tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction or brain tissue
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allow us to see structures within the brain
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; it is responsible for automatic survival functions.
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
reticular formation
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
the "little brian" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerbral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amydala, and hypothalamus.
limbic system
two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
the intericate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate controal and information-processing center.
cerebral cortex
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
glial cells
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements
frontal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; includes the sensory cortex
parietal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lyuing at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual info. from the opposite visual field
occipital lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which recieves auditory information primarily from the opposite ear
temporal lobes
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
motor cortex
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations
sensory cortex
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remebering, thinking, and speaking.
association areas
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
controls language experssion - an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Broca's area
controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
Wernicke's area
the brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage and in experiments on the effects of experinece on brain development
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carring messages between them
corpus callosum
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers between them
split brain