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### 23 Cards in this Set

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 An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. Case Study A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them. Survey The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors. False Consensus Effect All the cases in a group, from samples may be drawn for a study. Population A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. Random Sample Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. Naturalistic Observation A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to +1. Correlation A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation. Scatterplot The perception of a relationship where none exists. Illusionary Correlation A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process. By random assignment of participants, the experiment aims to control other relevant factors. Experiment An experimental procedure in which both the research participant and research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment of a placebo. Double-blind Procedure Experimental results caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent. Placebo Effect The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable. Experimental Condition The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment. Control Condition Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups. Random Assignment The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied. Independent Variable The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. Dependent Variable The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution. Mode The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores. Mean The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it. Median The difference between the highest and the lowest scores in a distribution. Range A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score. Standard Deviation A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance. Statistical Significance