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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
Case Study
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
False Consensus Effect
All the cases in a group, from samples may be drawn for a study.
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
Random Sample
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
Naturalistic Observation
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to +1.
A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation.
The perception of a relationship where none exists.
Illusionary Correlation
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process. By random assignment of participants, the experiment aims to control other relevant factors.
An experimental procedure in which both the research participant and research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment of a placebo.
Double-blind Procedure
Experimental results caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
Placebo Effect
The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
Experimental Condition
The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
Control Condition
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
Random Assignment
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
Independent Variable
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
Dependent Variable
The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.
The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
The difference between the highest and the lowest scores in a distribution.
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
Standard Deviation
A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
Statistical Significance