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77 Cards in this Set

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Habituation
The easiest form of learning

-learning from surroundings
-you get used to a certain sound

-"a decline in the tendency to respond to stimuli that have become familiar through repeated exposure"
Behaviorism
-"pre-wired behavior are supplemented by rewiring that occurs as a consequence of experience"

-Learning is based on establishing association

-assumes that there are general laws of learning
What are the Behaviorist theories
classical conditioning and operant conditioning
Classical Conditioning
a type ove learninging discovered by Pavlov that the subject is conditioned associates the stimuli to the response

-proposed a distinction between unconditioned and conditioned reflex
unconditioned stimulus
something that always makes you biologically stimulated

such as food
unconditioned reflex
a response to a stimulus carried out without thought or will

ex: salivating to food
conditioned stimulus
does not originally cause a stimulus, however, when conditioned, you do get stimulted by it

such as the tone right before the food is given
conditioned response
the reponse similar to reflex which is caused by conditioned stimulus after training

ex: play the tone and the dog will automatically salivate
extinction
-you keep doin gthe conditioned stimulus without giving it food

-the subject will learn to stop the conditioned response, however, after a short period of time of stopping it, it has a spontaneous recovery
- the subject is thinking "what if it's possible"
Reconditioning
after a conditioned response has been extinguished, it is easier for the subjec to be re introduced back to it
Higher Order Conditioning
two conditioned stimulus can be paired with one unconditioned stimulus, but one will be considered to be of greater significance

-for example, if you condition the light with the food first, and then later introduce a tone with the food, the subject will salivate more with the light than with theo tone
Generalization
Trained to respond to a specific conditioned stimulus, but the animal will give a litmited conditioned response to a stimulus which is closely related to the original conditioned stimulus

-ex: a dog will kind of salivate to a different tone than the one that it was conditioned with

however, it will stop after you keep doing it and no food
Discrimination
the reponse to different sounds will be played until the animal realizes and distinguishes the two different sounds and can define which one is wrong and only listen to the right sound
Blocking
ask about this
What is Learned in Classical Conditioning?
Pavlov says that the animal learns a relation between the two stimuli, the UCS & CS

-the CS is an anticipatory signal that tells the animal something is coming, therefore they act upon it
Can Any association be learned?
Pavlov says YES

but Garcia says NO
What was Garcia's Experiment?
The animal has two conditioned stimuli, which is the food and the light.

The first trial group is shocked, and they associate the light to the shock. Therefore, when presented water later, they will drink it.

The second group is given an x-ray illness, where their stomachs feel bad, therefore they associate the sweet water to the illness. When presented water and light, they will not drink the water.
What Is Operant Conditioning
This is found by Thorndike

associating between a stimulus and a response mediated by the consequences, re-enforcers, of the response

basically, training an animal to do something and as a result they either get punished or awarded if they do or don't
What is the Learning Curve like for Operant Conditioning?
They learn Gradually

the graph shows a gradual decline of the time it takes to get out of the box. The learning curve is not smooth but has lots of marked fluctuations.
Positive Reinforcement
add a desirable stimulus

ex: getting a hug; paycheck
Negative Reinforcement
Remove an aversive stimulus

ex: fastening seatbelt to turn off beeping
Positive Punishment
Administer an aversive stimulus

ex: spanking, parking ticket
Negative Punishment
withdraw a desirable stimulus

ex: time out from priveleges, grounding
Shaping
when you train the animal step by step with reinforcements, and later they can do the whole thing

ex: dolphins jumping through hoops

first you teach the dolphin to go through the hoop when it's very low, then eventually you increase the height, and it will jump through the hoop naturally
Conditioned Re-enforcers
A conditioned reinforcer is a previously neutral stimulus.

-If the neutral stimulus is paired with a primary reinforcer it has the same effect as the primary reinforcer

ex:money- the paper it self doesnt give you water and shelter, but paired with it it does.
Timing of Re-enforcement
when you reward every time they have a result, they get used to it, so you have to keep them guessing.

-delayed reinforcement usually slwos learning, but humans often work for a reward, although there are intermediate reinforcements, grades before diplomas, raises before promtions
Schedules of Reinforcement
Learns better with ration than interval
Fixed Interval
a reward is given after a specified amount of time (ever 2 minutes)
Variable Interval
a reward is given on a time averaged basis

ex:on average every 2 minutes
Fixed Ratio
A reward is given after a fixed number of correct responses
Variable Ratio
A reward is given on a response averaged basis

best choice
Comparison Of Classical and Operant Conditioning: Response
Classical: Involuntary, automatic

Operant Conditioning: "voluntary" operates on environment
Comparison of Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning: Acquisition
Classical: Associating event; cs announces UCS

Operant: associating response with a consequence (reinforcer or punishment)
Comparison of Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning: Extinction
Classical: CR decreases when CS is repeatedly presented alone

Operant: Responding decreases when reinforcement stops
Comparison of Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning: Cognitive Process
Classical: Subjects develope expectation that CS signals the arrival of UCS

Operant: Subjects devlop expecation that a response will be reinforced or punished; they also exhibit latent learning without reinforcement
Comparison of Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning: Biological Predisposiion
Classical: Natural predisposition constrain what stimuli and responses can easily be associated

Operant: Organisms best learn behaviors simliar to their natural behaviors; unnatural behaviors intinctively drift back toward natural ones
Learned Heplessness
when an animal is exposedto a stimulus repeatedly where it has no control over, the animal will either lose interest or become helpless.

ex. when a dog gets shockeed on one of the box it won't jump to the safe side because it thinks that it's helpless.
The Learning Curve of Learned Helplessness
at first it learns that there is a shock coming but later on the animal completely avoids it by jumping over to the safe side before the shock is even administered.
What is molar learning?
not using muscle memory to figure things out, instead use cognitive thinking.

The rat wouldn't understand the structure of the underwater maze if it was molecular. Because swimming requires a different movement sequence than the same maze on land.
What is molecular learning?
A series muscular movement sequences.

ex: memorizing the piano piece
What is Latent Learning?
you learn the knowledge, but you don't need to use it, so you store it and use it for later

ex: kid watching parents type on the computer
What is a Cognitive map?
the animal learns where everything is, and creates a mental representaion of spatial positions of an object

ex: a rat learning where all the things in the maze is
What are the 5 key properities of Language?
creative
structured
meaningful
referential
interpersonal
What is Creative Language?
We are continually creating/producing new and understanding sentences we have never heard before

ex:we create new vocabulary and phrases because of technolgical advances
What is Structured Language?
There is a structure to words, phrases, and sentences

plan is structured while tlan is no tl in the english language

Note: just because they're structured doesn't mean that they have any meaning
What is Meaningful Language?
words and sentences convey ideas and concepts

NOTE: just because it's structured doesnt mean it has meaning

-needs to have structure to be meaningful

-something that is referiential has to have meaning
What is Referential Language?
language is used to describe and make reference to things in the world
What is interpersonal Language?
share similar knowledge of structure with the language

-people need to have the same dialect to fully understand each other
What is phonetics?
physical properties of sound

-how you use vocals chords to pronounce or how your ears hear the sound
What is phonology?
Phonology is the study of how sounds are organized and used in natural languages.
What significance is there of Phonetics and Phonology in the English language?
there are different pronounciation of each letter like [t]

Tack
lattice
slat

you can't change hte meaning of tack by prounicing it with the lattice t instead of the tack t
What are the levels of language
1) Phonetics
2) Phonology
3) Morphology
4) Words
5) Syntax
6) Semantics
What is Phonemes
a unit of phonology that is the smallest perceptional unit pronounced

-substitution of one phoneme for another creates a new word or non-word

ex: t, p, e, sh

how many phonemes does the word [sound] have? 4

what about cheap? 3
What are the 2 hypothesis for learning the sound pattern of your language?
1) you learn just those sound distinctions you encounter in your language
2) You know all the possible sound distinctions and select just those importnat to your language
What is Morphology
the minimal units of meaning in language

dog is one morpheme
dogs is 2 morpheme
What is syntax
structure of sentence

how you put together a sentence like

article, noun, verb, article noun
the girl hit the ball
What is semantics?
meaning of the word's phrase and sentence

like
the mayor wanted the police to stop drinking

you can take it two different ways
What are systematic signs?
Children from ages 2-4 that are deaf make up their own signs to understand each other.
What is babbling?
Language invented by child. Has no function words.

usually starts after 1 year and before 2 years old

deaf children have same babbling and they babble with their hands
Why is it that most languages are spoken not signed?
It’s over a distance and it doesn’t require vision.
How is language discovered by children?
It is naturally discovered. Once you start acquiring the language it is essentially the same from children 18, 20, 22, 24 months.
When are you able to speak a language fluently?
You are able to speak like a native speaker at the start of the school age.
When is it harder to learn a language?
At the start of puberty from ages 13-14. You can see a start of encountering problems with language.
When you learn two languages as a child what happens in Broca's area?
As a child when you learn two languages simultaneously, Broca's area in your brain overlaps. If you learn two languages as an adult, you develop two separate language areas.
What kind of conditioning do animals use to learn language?
Animals use operate condition.

ex. Monkey uses sign language to communicate, and every time they use it they get rewarded with food.
After what age are children unable to learn any phonetic aquisition?
6 months

after 6 months, they are only sensitive to th ephonetic acquisition of the language spoken in their household
Are infants able to selectively attend to the phoneme of language?
Yes, it doesn't matter if the voice heard is male or female. They are only focused on the phoneme itself, and not the properties of the pitch etc.
What is the telegraphic speech for kids?
it's the two word stage, and they say mostly noun + verbs
What are functional words?
ex: by, if, a , the, of

it's hard for children to acquire
- need a model like parents to speak it
What is learning word
children have an ability to tell that chair refers to the whole chair not just the legs or arms
What are children's sense of structure?
-they have a sense of language structure
ex: drink water not water drink

If you tell them:
This is a rabbit--they know it refers to a general thing

but if you say
This is Rabbit--they know it is just that one thing
What is overgeneralization?
children usually overgeneralize:
nouns- apply the word horse to a cow

and verbs- like -ed
draw--drawed
bring--brang
What is the critical period?
this is the time where children will acquire language fluently, with no accent and correct grammar

-this is the time before 12 years old or puberty

-very important for learning second language
What happened to the language of wild and isolated children?
can acquire noun and verbs, but cannot acquire functional words and grammar

ex: Genee- isolated in her room and could not learn english very well. spoke in fragments

Chelsea- deaf and from a low class family
-when got her hearing back, she couldn't learn the grammar
What is meatalinguistic awarness?
-children know what is correct and what is incorrect structure and grammar wise
-but don't know why it's right or wrong

-just sounds right/wrong to them
What is bilingualism?
-acquire two language at the same time
-spontaneous
-overlapping area if less than 12
-if language is acquired after 12, there is no overlapping
What about animals and our language?
use operant conditioning to learn language for animals
-they can't master grammar/syntax