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115 Cards in this Set

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Aphasia
language disorder-has to do with language so usually on left hemisphere
Brocca's Aphasia
has trouble with production of language.

-can't speak well, but can fully comprehend
Wernike's Aphasia
fluent production but doesn't make sense

-comprehension is very poor
Apraxia
disconnection between language and movement

-cannot associate language with motor movements

-if they tell the person to say wave, they are able to
-if they motion them to wave, they are able to
-but if they tell them to wave they aren't able to
Anosagnosia
don't know they have impairment
ex: wernike's aphasia patients don't know that they have the aphasia, therefore they don't know that they're impaired.
Propagnosia
cannot recognize familiar faces
visual agnosia
perfect visual perception but don't know the meaning of what they see (no comprehension)

-ex: mistakes wife for a hat stand
neglect syndrome
another kind of agnosia

-damaged right parietal lobe
-ignores the left side

ex: dress right side only, not left side
Name the 3 limbic systems
septal

amygdala

hippocampus
Septal
controls pleasure and pain
Amygdala
engaged in emotions
Hippocampus
memory processing

-transfers short term memory -> long term memory

ex: H.M.-person who had most of hippocampus extracted and he has no long term memory since the surgery
What are the structures of the neuron
dendrite, cell body, axon, terminals, myelin sheath
dendrite
recieves information
axon
sends info from cell body to end
myelin sheath
speeds up transmission
Is the transmission within a neuron electrical or chemical?
electrical
Is the transmission between a neuron electrical or chemical
chemical

-releases vesicles containing information and receptors recept it--called neuro transmitters
resting potential
no firing

-polarized
-negative charged inside
positive charged on the outside
action potential
fires neuron, changes the charge

negative charge outside
positive charge inside
threshold
if it doesnt reach the threshold, then there's no firing
All or None Law
neurons either fire or not fire
how is Intensity determined?
-the number of neurons that are firing

-the rate of which the neurons are fired
Explain the different ways you can get a reflex
spatial summation-
-if you stimulate below the threshold in more than one spot that is close to each other

temporal summation-
-stimulate one spot below the threshold many times
Graded Potential
related to dendrites
-cumulative of the stimulation-> fire

-such summation can be spatial or temporal
synapse structure
it's between the neurons

one neuron releases info from vesicles to another

-Lock and Key Law- if receptors has the right shapes, then they can bind together
DeCartes theory
1) stimulation
2)excitation- stimulation makes neurons work
3)action-how we respond to stimulation
Central Nervous System
comprised of brain and spinal cord
Temporal lobe
audio

-has the primary audio cortex
Occipital
visual

-has the primary visual cortex
Pareital
sensory

has the somatic sensory strip on it
Frontal
personality, motor movement, planning

-primary motor cortex:has the motor strip on it
Somatosensory
M1
-the bigger the better- develope more if you use it more
-contralateral- right hemisphere of brain controls left side
left hemisphere controls right side
Visual
what we see on the right visual projected on the left hemisphere

left visual field is projected on the right hemisphere

contralateral
Audio
both:
contralateral

ipsilateral-can hear info from same side of body
corpus callosum
bridge and matter between the two hemisphere
Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter

Function: enables muscle action, learneing, and memory
Dopamine
Neurotransmitter

Function: influences movement, learning, attention and emotion
Seratonin
Neurotransmitter

Function: Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
Noepinephrine
Neurotransmitter

Function: Helps control alertness and arousal and memory
Neurons and the 3 classes of neurons
-A cell that specializes in the transfer of information within the nervous system

Three Classes:
-Sensory-afferent
-Motor-efferent
-Interneurons
Sensory Neurons
Transmits information from sensory receptors to the brain

Afferent
Motor Neurons
Transmit command from the brain to the muscle and glands of the body

Efferent
Interneurons
Interconnect neurons
Left Hemisphere functions
dominant for language, logic and complex motor behavior
Right Hemisphere functions
non-linguistic functions including recognition of faces, places and sounds, and spatial reasoning
Functions of the Cerebral Cortex
-provides for flexible control of patterns of movement
-permits subtle discrimination among coplex sensory patterns
-Makes possible symbolic thinking
-symbolic thought is the foundation of human thought and language
Functional Organization of Cortex
-Primary areas
:Primary Audio Cortex
:Primary Visual Cortex
:Primary Motor cortex
:Primary Somatosensory cortex

-Association areas
:Brocca's area
:Wernike's area
Motor Cortex
Output

Lips and fingers have the most area
Sensory Cortex
Input

lips tongue and foot
Medulla
controls heart rate and respiration
Cerebellum
Coordinates smooth movements, balance and posture
Pons
Involved in the control of sleep
Frontal Lobe Damage and Personality
-Frontal lobes are involved in movement, attention, planning, memory, and personality

-Frontal lobe function in personality is evident in teh case of Phineas Gage
Phineas Gage
-suffered from frontal lobe damage after accident of a rod stuck through his head

-after damage he was childish and irreverent, could not control his impulses and could not effectively plan
What are the three basic functions of the nervous system?
Reception- input through the senses via receptors

Reaction- response through the muscles and/or glands

Transmission and Integration
Name the Parts of the Neuron
1. dendrites
2. cell body
3. nucleus
4. axon
5. nodes of ranvier
6. myelin sheaths
7. schwaan cells
8. axon terminals
PET scan
What kind of scan is this?
Motivation
a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal
What are the different kinds of Motivation?
1) Biological Motivation
2) Hunger
3) Sexual Motivation
4) Work
What is the Autonomic Nervous System?
controls self regulated action of internal organs and glands

two types:
Sympathetic-arousing
Parasympathetic- calming
What does the Hypothalamus do?
controls the autonomic system
sends out signals ofr sympathetic and parasympathetic

ie: sends out signals for food intake, temperature regulation, water balance, glucose receptors, threat receptors, pain receptors, sleep, sex
What is the Somatic system?
controls voluntary movement of skeletal muscles
What kinds of things happens when the Sympathetic system is working?
-pupils dilate
-inhibition of tear glands
-inhibition of salivation
-acceleration of heart action
-opens respiratory passages
-inhibits stomach contractions and digestive secretion
-inhibits intestinal peristalsis
-relaxes bladder
-inhibits erection
What kinds of things happens when the Parasympathetic system is working?
-constriction of pupil
-secretion of tears
-salvation
-slowing of the heart action
-constrictino of respiratory passages
-stomach contractin: secretion of digestive fluids
-intestinal peristalsis
-contraction of bladder
-erection
Homeostasis
- the state of internal equilibrium which organisms maintain

Claude Bernard first proposed that the body is always working towards homeostasis
What influences Biological Motives?
under the direction of the brain and involve the interaction of the brain and other systems in the body- the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system
Endorphins
a kind of analgesia

-relieves the body of pain when stress is over

-brain produces endorphins and gives it to itself
Name the 3 biological rhythms
annual cycles- migratory patterns of birds, hibernating cycles and human variation in sleep appetite and mood

28 days cycles- menstral cycle

24 hour cycles- circadian rhythms, sleeping and waking cycle
What happens to the body temperature near dawn?
temeprature starts to rise
What happens to the body temperature near the middle of the day?
temperature kind of dips but plateaus out
What happens to the body temperature in the evening?
temerpature starts to fall and growth hormones start
What is the relationship between stage 4 sleep and REM sleep?
As you sleep at night, there is increase in REM sleep and decrease in stage 4 sleep
What is melatonin?
a hormone that controls our 24 hour biological clock

-tells the nerves if it's day or night
What happens if you have less REM sleep during that evening?
You make up for it the next time you sleep and vice versa with stage 4 sleep
Explain Negative Feedback
the consequence that stops or reverses the action

ex: thermostat controlled furnace

when it gets too hot the air conditioner turns on, but when it gets too cold it just turns off.
Positive Feedback
the consequence that strengthens the action
split brain operation
the two hemispheres can't communicate with each other

ex: key is on the left visual field, ring is on the right visual field.

key is projected on the right hemisphere, ring is projected on the left hemisphere

if asked to pick something up with his left hand, he would pick up the key since the right side controls the right motor movements

If you to tell him what word he sees he will say ring because left hemisphere is dominant in language
What does the liver influence?
To eat or not to eat.

If glucose is converted to glycogen, then liver receptors says don't eat.

If glycogen is asking for more glucose then the liver receptors says EAT!
What does the Pancreas have to do with eating?
it secretes insulin when digesting

it secretes glucagon when fasting
Name the two appetite hormones
insulin and leptin
What does insulin do?
controls the glucose levels in blood
what does leptin do?
protein secretes by fat cells, raise rate of metabolism and decrease hunger
What are the factors that influence weight
basal metabolic, genetics, biological, behavioral, cultural factors
What does Basal Metabolic rate have to do with weight?
the rate of energy expenditure in maintaining basic body functions when the body is at rest
Explain the James-Lange theory
first your aroused, and then you change into emotion
Explain the Cannon-Bard Theory
you are both aroused and emotion at the same time
Explain the Schachter's Theory
You are aroused and you have a cognitive thought such as "I'm scared" and then later it turns into emotion
What are the three factors of Sexual motivation?
Physiological readiness- this means if you are physically developed to copulate

Internal Stimuli- having a feeling for your significant other

External Stimuli-going out to dinner or something
What role does estrogen play in Sex
-women give off pheremone when ready to have sex
-estrogen levels are the highest when they are ready
What role does testosterome in human females?
women are most interested in sed when testosterome levels is highest
What is Freud's theory about dreams?
Dreams are a way to express forbidden desires

-also a way to disguise what's really going on underneath in the unconcious level

-a way to voice out their insecurities
What does memory consolidation have to do with dreams?
They make you review what happened through the day and process short term memory into long term memory.

If you are disturbed at REM sleep, you will be less likely to memorize the words given before you fell asleep.
What are the two types of sleep?
slow wave sleep and REM sleep
What's slow wave sleep?
There's four stages, stage one is less intense in waves than stage four
stage one-when he drops off to sleep
stage two- easy to wake up;shallow sleep stage
stage three- lasts only a couple of minutes-it's the transition stage
stage four- hard to wake up, deep sleep restoring body

once they pass stage one they cannot go back but they can repeat stages two through four.
What's active sleep?
Active sleep is when you dream. There is a level of conscious awareness in sleep.
What is REM sleep?
When you are in REM sleep your heartrate and respiration rate quickens and you are least sentivie to external stimulation. But if awakened then one leaps to attention instantly. They are physiologically activated and muscularly activated. There is uaully four to five REM periods throughout the night.

you dream during this stage
Talk about Restoration in sleep?
restoration happens the most during slow wave sleep

-during REM sleep neurons find connections to each other during developing state
What happens if you are sleep deprived?
REM rebound-If you are deprived in REM sleep, then the next time you sleep, you will make up for it and vice versa for stage 4
What is achievement motivation?
A desire for accomplishment. When you are self-motivated or are self-disciplined and is willing to spend the time to achieve goals.
How does work affect us?
Purposeful work enriches our lives. It is uplifting when working on an activity that uses our skills.
What are the benefits of job satisfaction?
When you are content with your job you feed your life satisfaction and you have less job stress. When you have less stress you have better health. There is also a greater productivity for the employer.
What is ambiguity?
It means something of doubtful interpretation.
Talk about the development of babies from sounds to the number of images.
Babies associate the number of sounds to the number of images.
What is social behavior?
It is a learned attachment that is formed in a period of life that is difficult to reverse.

ex. Ducklings follow the first shadow they see that is the closet resemblance to them. If there is no mother shadow, they follow the shadow of whatever there is.
What are the main perspectives of psychology?
Psychodynamic, behaviorism, cognitive theory, and evolutionary approach.
What is psychodynamic theory?
it states that personality differences are based on unconscious conflicts inside.
What is behaviorism?
It has to do with how one acts and expresses themselves with their attitudes.
What is cognitive theory?
a theory that tries to change some of hte patient's habitual modes of thinking about themselves, their situation or their future.
What is evolutionary approach?
Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection.
What is the scientific method?
Theories lead to hypothesis which lead to research observations which then generates or refines theories.
What are the steps of the method?
The purpose, how it is conducted, what is manipulated, and possible problems.
What is statisical reasoning?
Describing data, measuring the central tendency, measures variation, and making examples.
what does the lateral hypothalamus do in relation to hunger?
if stimulated, it causes you to eat

if lateral hypothalamus is damaged it causes you to stop eating
What does the ventral medial hypothalamus do in relation to hunger?
if stimulated causes you to stop eating

if the ventral medial hypothalamus is damaged, it causes you to keep eating