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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
why study memory?
improve study & recall
cognitive approach
processes of memory
neuroscience approach
physiology of memory
sensory memory
iconic & echoic: when somebody says something to you and you ask what? and then you remember what they said [sperling]
short term/working memory
< 30 seconds, magical number 7- can recall 7 digits
long term memory
> 30 seconds to infinity, unlimited capacity
rehearsal, ebbinghaus, amount remembered depends on time spent learning
spacing effect
longer intervals= better recall, those who learn quickly also forget quickly
primacy effect
1st thing said
serial position effect
1st and last items, roediger & mcdermott
combining separate pieces of info into meaningful groups or chunks
context dependent memory
details of setting where info was encoded can serve as retrieval cues
state dependent memory
physical or mental condition may serve as retrieval cue
review or practice of material while learning it
associating information with mental images
pemdas, foil
minimize interference
don't study multiple subjects in same session, sleep
try to understand relevant background info, gives material meanings/associations
don't cram
knowledge gained by systematic study
the science of and application of knowledge regarding behavioral. psychological, and cogitive processes
ways to draw conclusions
observation, thinking/reasoning, information from others, scientific method
descriptive research method
describe and predict relationships
experimental research method
control variables and infer casualty
when two or more variables are related
positive correlation
both variables increase or decrease together
negative correlation
as one variable increases, the other decreases
independent variable (iv)
cause manipulated
dependent variable
effect observed/measured
experimental condition
participants exposed to the independent variable
control condition
participants not exposed to the independent variable
social psychology
individual's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors as influenced by others
fundamental attribution error
tendency to assume internal attribution for the behaviors of others
door in the face
start huge then retreat
foot in the door
ask for something small, then bulid
cognitive dissonance
when behaviors and/or attitudes conflict, we feel discomfort
bystander effect
bystanders increase= help less likely
social loafing
reduced effort as work group size increases, latane, williams, & harkins
a form of compliance, following direct commands
solomon asch, yielding to real or imagined social pressure