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151 Cards in this Set

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Classical Conditioning is important because it can provide the basis for
Emotional Responses
Little Albert was concluded to be afraid of a white rat, but then he also responded with a fear when shown a ball of cotton. The fear of cotton was due to ________________.
Generalization
Playing a slot machine can be thought of as______________________.
An operantly conditioned response
Marcy is playing a slot machine. She is on a _____________ schedule of reinforcement.
Variable Ratio
The type of schedule of reinforcement that will lead to the greatest resistance to extinction is the ______________________ schedule.
Variable
It can be argued that operant conditioning is actually an instance of _________________________.
Problem-solving and cooperation
Experiences that lead to learning lead to ____________________.
The growth of more dendrites on neurons in the brain.
Learning results in the firing of only certain postsynaptic neurons. That selectiving if fire is due to________________.
long-term potentiation
In your short-term memory, you can usually hold _____________ items, give or take one or two.
Seven
An individual who suffers from retrograde amnesia will lose his or her __________________ memories.
Declarative
Sean studies for an exam in the room in which he will take the exam whereas Donna studies for the exam in a different room. The exam is part essay and part multiple choice. All other things being equal, Sean will _______________________
Will do better than Donna on the essay part of the exam but the same on the multiple choice part.
Forgetting is usually due to
Interference
Individuals who as children were exposed to traumatic events (concentration camps, brutilization of parents) __________________.
Have persistent memories of the events
In the brain, declarative memories are processed in the ____________________ on their way to long-term storage.
Hippocampus
An adult who cannot put new experiences into memory is suffering from _______________.
anterograde amnesia
Infantile amnesia appears to be due to
Incomplete development of the hippocampus
The process by which we supposedly eliminate anxiety provoking memories from consciousness and store them in the unconscious is called _____________.
repression
The area of the brain that plays a role in the processing of information for storage in the long-term memory is the ___________________.
amygdala
The smallest unit of sound in a language is ________________.
Phoneme
Sheila has difficulty making up and understanding sentences that have complex structures. It is likely that she has a problem in her __________.
Broca's Area
When you read the sentence, "The apple was eaten by the boy" you know the boy ate the apple because of your ability with _______________.
Syntax
Chimpanzees show better development of _________________ than _______________.
Vocabulary, syntax
____________ suggested that we have a language acquisition device that enables us to develop syntax
Chomsky
Genie, the modern "wild child", developed ______________________ but not _____________.
Vocabulary, Syntax
An individual who is unable to translate sounds into words probably has a problem with _________________.
Wernicke's Area
Chimpanzees are limited in their development of ___________ because they have a limited development of the _____________________.
Syntax, frontal lobes
Evidence for the possibility that intelligence consists of seperate abilities comes from findings that _______________.
different abilities are located in different areas of the brain.
It now appears that intelligence consists of ______________.
A combination of a set of specific abilities and a general ability.
Speed of neural processing is thought to be a measure of
general intelligence.
Crystalized intelligence is _____________.
knowledge or information that is accumulated through education or experience.
If you were asked to indicate what symbol comes next in the series, 1,4,2,3,3,2, your answer would depend on
a combination of crystalized and fluid intelligence.
______________ intelligence genereally increases over time, whereas _____________________ intelligence usually peaks in early adulthood and then begins to decline.
crystalized, fluid
The decline in intelligence referred to in the preceding question is due to
deterioration of the brain
Downs syndrome is due to
an extra chromosome
Which of the following is NOT necessary for a diagnosis of mental retardation?
Known cause of the problem
Individuals who are labeled as "gifted" have IQ's of ____________ and higher.
130
Overall brain size is ______________ correlated with intelligence.
Positively
When solving problems, the brains of more intelligent people use ____________ than the brains of less intelligent people.
Less glucose
When it comes to intelligence in adults, genetics _____________.
play a greater role than the environment than in the case for children.
When children from disadvantaged homes were adopted into homes with more advantages, the children showed ____________________.
Substantial increase in IQ that appeared to be permanent.
Destruction of brain tissue and the consequent reduction of intelligence of a child because of the mother's drinking of alcohol during the prenatal period:
Can occur even if the mother drinks only a very small amount of alcohol.
Right now most of you have more ___________ intelligence but less ________________ intelligence than professor holmes.
Fluid; crystalized
________ is not a cause of obesity.
Emotional Problems
the drug Viagra is used to treat
Arousal Disorder
Problems with ___________________ are related to insufficient feedback about being full and thereby to obesity.
Leptin
Which of the following is NOT a sexual disorder?
Homosexuality Disorder
The gender identity disorder
Is not treatable
The gender identity disorder can be explained best in terms of ____________.
hormone exposure during pre-natal development.
Which of the following has not been linked to Homosexuality
Child-rearing practices
After an accident in which a rod was driven through his brain, Phineas Gage became impulsive, erratic, and impatient. The area of his brain that was damaged in the accident was the
Pre-frontal Cortex
Individuals in preliterate ("stone age") cultures in New Guinea experience _______________ individuals in more literate cultures such as those in North America.
The same emotions as
When compared to normall sighted individuals, individuals who were born blind and who therefore could not see the expressions of others showed
Normal expressions of all emotions
In an experiment men exercised for either two minutes or 15 seconds, and then all of the men rated the attractiveness of a woman. When compared to the rating made by men who exercised for 15 seconds, the men who exercised for two minutes rated the woman as _____________________.
more attractive only if she was actually attractive.
Watching a gruesome movie can ______________________ feelings of romantic attraction to an attractive woman and can ___________________ feelings of romantic attention to an unattractive woman.
increase, decrease
Some psychologists have suggested that passion is due to
classical conditioning
You are angry with the professor in whose class you earned a low grade, so you go home and kick the door. That is an example of _____________.
displacement.
Which of the following is not a level of consciousness as described by Freud?
Semiconscious
The proper order of Freud's stages of psychosexual development is
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
The Oedipus complex develops in the _____________ stage.
Phallic
The _____________ seems to say, "I want what I want when I want it"
id
Learning theorists would argue that emotions are due to
Operant Conditioning
For Freud, the moral arm of society was represented in the
Superego
It now appears that about _________ of the variability in personality is due to genetic factors
50%
Carl Jung believed that personality was in large part the result of
Interpersonal Conflicts
Human female fetuses who were exposed to high levels of androgens later showed behaviors that were characteristic of
Tomboys
Freud reported that Anna O. lived normally after her treatment, and we now know that
Frued was lying about her improvement
When explaining the behavior of other people, you are most likely to use
their personalities
When explaining the behavior of others, we are most likely to make the fundamental attribution error because
we focus attention on the person
You dislike Bill. He does very well on an exam, and you attribute his good performance to
situational factor's (an easy exam)
Which of the following is NOT generally related to greater attraction to another person
Complementarity
Sue is very attractive and Jane is somewhat unattractive. Jane's rating of attractiveness will be higher when she
Is with Sue
Which of the following pairs of people will be most attracted to one another.
person A is depressed and person B is depressed
"It really hurts me to watch that person struggle with her problem. I think I'll go and help her." That statement best reflects which explanation for helping?
Negative relief
After having their mood improved by unexpectedly finding some money, individuals were more likely to
Help a person who needed help
The bystander effect in helping indicates that you are more likely to be helped:
If there are relatively few people around
In the famous experiment by Miligram on "obedience" about ___________ of the individuals went all the way to the point of apparently killing the other person.
65%
Physiology
is the final common pathway for psychiatric disorders
Lisa avoids others because she has a fear of being criticized by them. Lisa is suffering from
A social phobia
Drugs that reduce physiological arousal can be effective for
suppressing phobias
High levels of neurological activity in the area of the brain that is responsible for the emotional arousal can be used to explain
generalized anxiety disorder
The drugs that are effective for treating panic attacks are those that
Increase levels of serotonin at the synapses
In children, the obsessive-compulsive disorder is often due to
strep-infections
The drugs that are effective for treating the obsessive compulsive disorder are those that
Increase serotonin levels
Which of the following individuals is most likely to suffer from depression? An individual who
Has had a stroke in the left prefrontal cortex
A new treatment for depression involves
magnetic stimulation of the brain
Which of the following is NOT an explanation for somatoform disorders.
Suppressed hostility.
Even when stress causes depression, the final cause in the brain is
low levels of neurotransmitters in the cortex.
The disorder that was once called the manic-depressive disorder is now called the
bipolar disorder
The disorder that was once called the manic-depressive disorder is now called the
Bipolar disorder
Suicides that are disguised as accidents are called
Covert Suicides
Bizarre beliefs that are help despite strong evidence to the contrary are called
delusions
The disturbed thought process seen in individuals who suffer from schizophrenia are due to
distraction
_________ is a positive symptom of schizophrenia
Hallucinations
Individuals with positive symptoms of schizophrenia usually show __________ development of symptoms and a ___________________ prognosis.
rapd, good
The high levels of neurological activity that are found in some individuals with schizophrenia are caused by
high levels of dopamine in tracts leaving the brain stem and limbic system
The antidepression drugs known as MAOI's work because they
stimulate the production of more serotonin
Stimulants can reduce depression because they
stimulate the production of neurotransmitters
THe bipolar disorder is thought to be due to
unstable levels of neurological activity
The evidence now indicated that for treating the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
drugs are more effective then psychological treatments.
Tardive Dyskinesia is
a side effect of neuroleptics
Which of the following treatments would be LEAST likely to be effective for reducing hallucinations, delusions, and thought disturbances in persons with schizophrenia.
A token economy
The TAT and the Rorschach are ____________ tests
projective
Data from which of the following will enable a psychologist to make the most accurate description of an individual's new personality?
an interview plus an MMPI
On the Rorschach, the use of color supposedly reflects _____________ in the individual.
Emotion
An individual with a high F- score on the Rorschach would be thought to be
in poor tough with reality.
The attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is due to
low levels of arousal in the part of the brain that controls attention and motor behavior
The attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
can be carried forward into adulthood
The drug Naltraxone is effective for treating
substance abuse disorders
In most cases, the antisocial personality disorder
burns out at about age 40
A problem with case studies is that
we cannot draw conclusions concerning cause and effect from them
Correlations are an improvement over case studies because form correlations we can determine
the reliability of a relationship
A correlation coefficient can be used to determine whether
there is a relationship between two variables
Among children, age and height are
positively correlated
Which of the following correlations indicates the strongest relationship between two variables
-.74
In experiments, participants are randomly assigned to conditions to avoid
differences between the groups that are not due to the independent variable.
A good way to study the effects of genetic factors on aggression would be to
compare the levels of aggression in adopted children to the levels of aggrfession in their bilogical and their nonbiological parents.
The ________________ effect is the result of expectations.
Placebo
The double-blind procedure is used to avoid the problems of expectations of
participants and experimenters
The spinal cord is part of the
central nervous system
Increases in arousal are stimulated by ___________ branch of the nervous system, whereas decreases in arousal are stimulated by the _____________ branch of the nervous system.
Sympathetic, parasympathetic
Voodoo is death due to an over-reaction of the _______________ branch of the nervous system.
Parasympathetic
The area of the brain stem that is primarily responsible for generating neurological activity is the
reticular activating system
The ____________ carries stimulation up from the brain stem to higher areas of the brain
reticular activating system
The part of the brain that is primarily responsible for the coordination of motor movements is the
cerebellum
Homeostasis is controlled primarily by the
limbic system
Marci is suffering from anorexia. It is likely that she has a problem in her
hypothalamus
The primary role of the _______________ is the processing of memories for stroage.
Hippocampus
The structure in the brain that is primarily responsible for rage and aggression is the
amygdala
The amygdala plays a secondary role in
processing memories for storage
Which of the following is NOT part of the limbic system
Pons
The thalamus is repsonsible for
interpreting incoming sensory stimuli
The top portion of your brain where higher mental processes occur is known as the
cerebrum
The cortex consists of
the thin layer of cells that cover the hemispheres
the lobes that are located directly behind the temporal lobes are the ______________ lobes
parietal
The auditory sensory of your brain are located in your __________________ lobes
temporal
Which of the following body parts takes up most space in your somatosensory area
finger
In most people, language abilities are found in the
left hemishpere
The cells in the nervous system are called
neurons
The nerve impulse is carried out from the body of the neuron to the next neuron by the
axon
Local anesthetics, such as novocain, stop the action potential by
clogging the sodium/potassium channgels
Transmission of the nerve impulse down the axon is a(n) ______________ process, and transmission of the nerve impulse across the synaptic gap is usually a(n) _______________ process.
electrical, chemical
What structure connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain?
corpus callosum
Circadian Rhythm refers to
the daily cycle of sleep and wakefulness
For most people, the circadian rhythm
is longer than 24 hrs
REM
is correlated with dreaming
In most cases, sleep occurs when
the reticular formation stops carrying electrical activity to higher areas of the brain
REM is caused by
stimulation by the PGO system
Freud suggested that dreams
Occur when otherwise unconscious material slips out during sleep
A more modern explanation for dreams is that they are due to
random stimulation of cell assemblies
Which of the following disorders would most likely be treated with an hypnotic
insomnia
it was the early work of _______ that lead to what we call hypnosis
Mesmer