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34 Cards in this Set

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Define Psychology
The Scientific study of usually human behavior and mental processes
Biological/Physiological Psychologists
Subfield- Biological factors underlying behavior. How genetics, brain, and hormones effect our behavior
Developmental Psychologists
Subfield- Explore the causes and effects of changes in behavior and mental processe over the life span. Study children's friendships, parenting styles and outcomes, and changes in our thinking ability
Cognative/ Experimental Psychologists
Subfield- Study the processes underlying perception, motivation, emotion, memory, problem solving, and other aspects of human thought
Personality Psychologists
Study the qualities that make people unique and explore relationships among personality characteristics, behavior, and mental processes.
Clinical and Counseling Psychologists
Subfield- Seek to understand the origins of behavior disorders and to help people deal with disorders.
Social Psychologists
Subfield- Focus on how people affect others' behavior and thinking. Study advertising, prejudice, and interpersonal attraction.
Industrial-Organizational Psychologists
Subfield- Are interested in factors affecting work productivity
Quantitative Psychology
Subfield- Take stats of other subfields and look at numbers to draw a conclusion on something.
Other Subfields
Engineering, Community, Health, Sport, Forensic, Enviornmental
Linkages in Psychology
Psychology research contributes to other disciplines such as neuroscience and uses theories from other disciplines to understand phenomena. Many psychologists are interested in several subfields, and may use more than one approach to study behavior and mental processes.
Empiricism
What we know about the world comes from experience and observation, not imagination or intuition (tabula rasa)
Empirical Research
Do experiments to study behavior and mental processes... ex. Eating with amnesia
Structuralism
Wundt wanted to study conciousness using scientific methods. Used introspection to document "quality" and "intensity" as elements of sensation. Titchener further identified "clarity" as a dimention
Gestalt Psychologists
Disagreed with Wundt's methods, and suggested analyzing the whole concious experience, not its elements.
Psychoanalysis
Freud developed a theory of personality based on the assumption that the unconscious could influence people's behavior
Functionalism
James investigated how consiousness works to help people adapt to their enviornments using sensations, ideas, and memories.
Behaviorism
Watson said that it was important to observe people's behavioral reaction to stiumli without making inferences about conciousness.
Introspection
"Looking Inward" used in Structuralism
Clinical and Counseling Psychologists
Subfield- Seek to understand the origins of behavior disorders and to help people deal with disorders.
Social Psychologists
Subfield- Focus on how people affect others' behavior and thinking. Study advertising, prejudice, and interpersonal attraction.
Industrial-Organizational Psychologists
Subfield- Are interested in factors affecting work productivity
Quantitative Psychology
Subfield- Take stats of other subfields and look at numbers to draw a conclusion on something.
Other Subfields
Engineering, Community, Health, Sport, Forensic, Enviornmental
Functional Analysis
How rewards and punishments shape, maintain, and change behavior
Basic Assumptions that define the six approaches
The factors that cause, maintain, and alter behavior and mental processes
Biological
Physiological factors determine beharvior and mental processes.
Evolutionary
Behavior results partly from evolution through natural selection.
Psychodinamic
Behavior reflects unconscious internal conflict between inherited instincts and society's behavioral rules.
Behavioral
Learning explains behavior.
Cognitive
Behavior is a result of information proceessing.
Humanistic
People choose how to behave based on their perceptions of the world in order to grow toward their unique potential.
Eclectic
Psychologists that use more than one approach
The Influence of Culture on Behavior and Mental Processes
creates general tendencies amoung the people living in them